Cold War Modernists

Drawing on interviews, previously unknown archival materials, and the stories of such figures and institutions as William Faulkner, Stephen Spender, Irving Kristol, James Laughlin, and Voice of America, Barnhisel reveals how the U.S. ...

Author: Greg Barnhisel

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 0231538626

Category: Literary Criticism

Page: 336

View: 345

European intellectuals of the 1950s dismissed American culture as nothing more than cowboy movies and the A-bomb. In response, American cultural diplomats tried to show that the United States had something to offer beyond military might and commercial exploitation. Through literary magazines, traveling art exhibits, touring musical shows, radio programs, book translations, and conferences, they deployed the revolutionary aesthetics of modernism to prove—particularly to the leftists whose Cold War loyalties they hoped to secure—that American art and literature were aesthetically rich and culturally significant. Yet by repurposing modernism, American diplomats and cultural authorities turned the avant-garde into the establishment. They remade the once revolutionary movement into a content-free collection of artistic techniques and styles suitable for middlebrow consumption. Cold War Modernists documents how the CIA, the State Department, and private cultural diplomats transformed modernist art and literature into pro-Western propaganda during the first decade of the Cold War. Drawing on interviews, previously unknown archival materials, and the stories of such figures and institutions as William Faulkner, Stephen Spender, Irving Kristol, James Laughlin, and Voice of America, Barnhisel reveals how the U.S. government reconfigured modernism as a trans-Atlantic movement, a joint endeavor between American and European artists, with profound implications for the art that followed and for the character of American identity.

The Naked Communist Cold War Modernism and the Politics of Popular Culture

Cold War Modernism and the Politics of Popular Culture Roland Vegso. the
eighties, saw the continuation of the debate between “traditionalists” and “
revisionists,” with the latter (liberal) position dominating American academia.

Author: Roland Vegso

Publisher: Fordham Univ Press

ISBN: 082324556X

Category: History

Page: 245

View: 147

Based on an analysis of American anti-Communist politics in the 1950s, the book presents parallel readings of modernism and popular fiction by concentrating on four recurrent figures (the world, the enemy, the secret, the catastrophe) in order to show that the two cultural fields participated in a common ideological program.

Martha Graham s Cold War

Barnhisel, Cold War Modernists, 5n7, 259, quoting Max Kozloff, “American
Painting during the Cold War,” Artforum, May 1973,44. Foner, The Story of
American Freedom. “Nikita Khrushchev, Conversation at the Manege Exhibit,
December 1, ...

Author: Victoria Phillips

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 0190610360

Category: History

Page: 472

View: 434

Revision of author's thesis (doctoral)--Columbia University, 2013, titled Strange commodity of cultural exchange: Martha Graham and the State Department on tour, 1955-1987.

Southern Literature Cold War Culture and the Making of Modern America

art—specifically literary modernism and abstract expressionism—played in the
export of American values. In Cold War Modernism: Art, Literature, and American
Cultural Diplomacy (2015), Barnhisel brings together Cold War culture and
artistic ...

Author: Jordan J. Dominy

Publisher: Univ. Press of Mississippi

ISBN: 1496826442

Category: Literary Criticism

Page: 190

View: 687

During the Cold War, national discourse strove for unity through patriotism and political moderation to face a common enemy. Some authors and intellectuals supported that narrative by casting America’s complicated history with race and poverty as moral rather than merely political problems. Southern Literature, Cold War Culture, and the Making of Modern America examines southern literature and the culture within the United States from the period just before the Cold War through the civil rights movement to show how this literature won a significant place in Cold War culture and shaped the nation through the time of Hillbilly Elegy. Tackling cultural issues in the country through subtext and metaphor, the works of authors like William Faulkner, Lillian Smith, Robert Penn Warren, Eudora Welty, Ralph Ellison, Alice Walker, and Walker Percy redefined “South” as much more than a geographical identity within an empire. The “South” has become a racially coded sociopolitical and cultural identity associated with white populist conservatism that breaks geographical boundaries and, as it has in the past, continues to have a disproportionate influence on the nation’s future and values.

Late Modernism

In this compelling work of intellectual and cultural history Genter presents an invigorated tradition of late modernism, centered on the work of Kenneth Burke, Ralph Ellison, C. Wright Mills, David Riesman, Jasper Johns, Norman Brown, and ...

Author: Robert Genter

Publisher: University of Pennsylvania Press

ISBN: 0812200071

Category: History

Page: 384

View: 465

In the thirty years after World War II, American intellectual and artistic life changed as dramatically as did the rest of society. Gone were the rebellious lions of modernism—Joyce, Picasso, Stravinsky—and nearing exhaustion were those who took up their mantle as abstract expressionism gave way to pop art, and the barren formalism associated with the so-called high modernists wilted before the hothouse cultural brew of the 1960s. According to conventional thinking, it was around this time that postmodernism with its characteristic skepticism and relativism was born. In Late Modernism, historian Robert Genter remaps the landscape of American modernism in the early decades of the Cold War, tracing the combative debate among artists, writers, and intellectuals over the nature of the aesthetic form in an age of mass politics and mass culture. Dispensing with traditional narratives that present this moment as marking the exhaustion of modernism, Genter argues instead that the 1950s were the apogee of the movement, as American practitioners—abstract expressionists, Beat poets, formalist critics, color-field painters, and critical theorists, among others—debated the relationship between form and content, tradition and innovation, aesthetics and politics. In this compelling work of intellectual and cultural history Genter presents an invigorated tradition of late modernism, centered on the work of Kenneth Burke, Ralph Ellison, C. Wright Mills, David Riesman, Jasper Johns, Norman Brown, and James Baldwin, a tradition that overcame the conservative and reactionary politics of competing modernist practitioners and paved the way for the postmodern turn of the 1960s.

Cold War on the Home Front

[a] unitary future world” receded after the war, modernism suffered a “rapid
devaluation of its ideal content.”1 The same could be said for the promise of
modernist product design as a vehicle for social reform. In his Enquiry into
IndustrialArt in ...

Author: Greg Castillo

Publisher: U of Minnesota Press

ISBN: 0816646910

Category: History

Page: 278

View: 287

Greg Castillo presents an illustrated history of the persuasive impact of model homes, appliances, and furniture in Cold War propaganda.

Bells for America

Recounts the history of the Netherlands Carillon, given to the United States in the 1950s by the Dutch government, and explores its paradoxical placement in the American memorial landscape.

Author: Diederik Oostdijk

Publisher: Penn State University Press

ISBN: 9780271083773

Category: Cold War

Page: 239

View: 443

"Recounts the history of the Netherlands Carillon, given to the United States in the 1950s by the Dutch government, and explores its paradoxical placement in the American memorial landscape"--

Cold Warriors

2 Cold War Modernism and the Crisis of Story [ T ] he characteristic element of
modern literature , or at least of the most highly developed modern literature , is
the bitter line of hostility to civilization which runs through it . ... And perhaps I
ought ...

Author: Suzanne Clark

Publisher: SIU Press

ISBN: 9780809323029

Category: Literary Criticism

Page: 251

View: 708

Cold Warriors: Manliness on Trial in the Rhetoric of the West returns to familiar cultural forces—the West, anticommunism, and manliness—to show how they combined to suppress dissent and dominate the unruliness of literature in the name of a national identity after World War II. Few realize how much the domination of a “white male” American literary canon was a product not of long history, but of the Cold War. Suzanne Clark describes here how the Cold War excluded women writers on several levels, together with others—African American, Native American, poor, men as well as women—who were ignored in the struggle over white male identity. Clark first shows how defining national/individual/American identity in the Cold War involved a brand new configuration of cultural history. At the same time, it called upon the nostalgia for the old discourses of the West (the national manliness asserted by Theodore Roosevelt) to claim that there was and always had been only one real American identity. By subverting the claims of a national identity, Clark finds, many male writers risked falling outside the boundaries not only of public rhetoric but also of the literary world: men as different from one another as the determinedly masculine Ernest Hemingway and the antiheroic storyteller of the everyday, Bernard Malamud. Equally vocal and contentious, Cold War women writers were unwilling to be silenced, as Clark demonstrates in her discussion of the work of Mari Sandoz and Ursula Le Guin. The book concludes with a discussion of how the silencing of gender, race, and class in Cold War writing maintained its discipline until the eruptions of the sixties. By questioning the identity politics of manliness in the Cold War context of persecution and trial, Clark finds that the involvement of men in identity politics set the stage for our subsequent cultural history.

Post War Modernist Cinema and Philosophy

Alma's talking has generated aself consciousness and considerable anguish,
butthe subsequent realisationof Elisabet's cold perspective uponreading the
letter escalatesandsolidifies herchange froman apparently naïve subject to an ...

Author: H. Ford

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1137283521

Category: Performing Arts

Page: 284

View: 365

A unique study of four major post-war European films by four key 'auteurs', which argues that these films exemplify film modernism at the peak of its philosophical reflection and aesthetic experimentation.

Modernism and Totalitarianism

In the early phase of the debate about totalitarianism, Cold War liberals were
tireless in showing again and again just how it ... ColdWar liberals oftensaidthat
the sourcewas really the Enlightenment, with itsdangerous overestimation
ofReason.

Author: R. Shorten

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1137284374

Category: History

Page: 321

View: 998

Modernism and Totalitarianism evaluates a broad range of post-1945 scholarship. Totalitarianism, as the common ideological trajectory of Nazism and Stalinism, is dissected as a synthesis of three modernist intellectual currents which determine its particular, inherited character.

Planet of the Apes and Philosophy

Modernism's advocates praised its austerity and intellectual purity over the
commercialism and sentiment of popular culture. During the Cold War, modernist
art, with its implied critical stance, was promoted as an example of the freedom of
 ...

Author: John Huss

Publisher: Open Court

ISBN: 0812698274

Category: Philosophy

Page: 288

View: 475

What makes humans different from other animals, what humans are entitled to do to other species, whether time travel is possible, what limits should be placed on science and technology, the morality and practicality of genetic engineering—these are just some of the philosophical problems raised by Planet of the Apes. Planet of the Apes and Philosophy looks at all the deeper issues involved in the Planet of the Apes stories. It covers the entire franchise, from Pierre Boulle’s 1963 novel Monkey Planet to the successful 2012 reboot Rise of the Planet of the Apes. The chapters reflect diverse points of view, philosophical, religious, and scientific. The ethical relations of humans with animals are explored in several chapters, with entertaining and incisive observations on animal intelligence, animal rights, and human-animal interaction. Genetic engineering is changing humans, animals, and plants, raising new questions about the morality of such interventions. The scientific recognition that humans and chimps share 99 percent of their genes makes a future in which non-human animals acquire greater importance a distinct possibility. Planet of the Apes is the most resonant of all scientific apocalypse myths.

Modernist Voyages

Ostensibly, Stead moves us beyond modernism into the Cold War period, and
hence towards the period of decolonization and the many postcolonial women
writers who emerged in London the 1950s and '60s, such as Phyllis Shand
Allfrey, ...

Author: Anna Snaith

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 110778249X

Category: Literary Criticism

Page:

View: 363

London's literary and cultural scene fostered newly configured forms of feminist anticolonialism during the modernist period. Through their writing in and about the imperial metropolis, colonial women authors not only remapped the city, they also renegotiated the position of women within the empire. This book examines the significance of gender to the interwoven nature of empire and modernism. As transgressive figures of modernity, writers such as Jean Rhys, Katherine Mansfield, Una Marson and Sarojini Naidu brought their own versions of modernity to the capital, revealing the complex ways in which colonial identities 'traveled' to London at the turn of the twentieth century. Anna Snaith's timely and original study provides a new vantage point on the urban metropolis and its artistic communities for scholars and students of literary modernism, gender and postcolonial studies, and English literature more broadly.

Modernism Satire and the Novel

Samuel Beckett, long discussed as a, if not the, final figure in the great
procession of modernist writers, is a natural if not ... In describing late modernism,
Fredric Jameson argues that “the Cold War spelled the end of a whole era of
social ...

Author: Jonathan Greenberg

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139501518

Category: Literary Criticism

Page:

View: 191

In this groundbreaking study, Jonathan Greenberg locates a satiric sensibility at the heart of the modern. By promoting an antisentimental education, modernism denied the authority of emotion to guarantee moral and literary value. Instead, it fostered sophisticated, detached and apparently cruel attitudes toward pain and suffering. This sensibility challenged the novel's humanistic tradition, set ethics and aesthetics into conflict and fundamentally altered the ways that we know and feel. Through lively and original readings of works by Evelyn Waugh, Stella Gibbons, Nathanael West, Djuna Barnes, Samuel Beckett and others, this book analyzes a body of literature - late modernist satire - that can appear by turns aloof, sadistic, hilarious, ironic and poignant, but which continually questions inherited modes of feeling. By recognizing the centrality of satire to modernist aesthetics, Greenberg offers not only a new chapter in the history of satire but a persuasive new idea of what made modernism modern.

Tense Future

Modernism, Total War, Encyclopedic Form Paul K. Saint-Amour. antecedent to
Cold War temporality in the war machine's capacity, after 1918, to “generate
fictional visions of wars not yet waged. . . . The real legacy of the Great War lies
not in ...

Author: Paul K. Saint-Amour

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0190266295

Category: Literary Criticism

Page: 368

View: 334

We know that trauma can leave syndromes in its wake. But can the anticipation of violence be a form of violence as well? Tense Future argues that it can-that twentieth-century war technologies and practices, particularly the aerial bombing of population centers, introduced non-combatants to a coercive and traumatizing expectation. During wartime, civilians braced for the next raid; during peacetime they braced for the next war. The pre-traumatic stress they experienced permeates the century's public debates and cultural works. In a series of groundbreaking readings, Saint-Amour illustrates how air war prophets theorized the wounding power of anticipation, how archive theory changed course in war's shadow, and how speculative fiction conjured visions of a civilizational collapse that would end literacy itself. And in this book's central chapters, he shows us how Ford Madox Ford, Robert Musil, James Joyce, Virginia Woolf, and other interwar modernist writers faced the memory of one war and the prospect of another, some by pitting their fictions' encyclopedic scale and formal turbulence against total war, others by conceding war's inevitability while refusing to long for a politically regressive peace. Total war: a conflict that exempts no one, disregarding any difference between soldier and civilian. Tense Future forever alters our understanding of the concept of total war by tracing its emergence during the First World War, its incubation in air power theory between the wars, and above all its profound partiality. For total war, during most of the twentieth century, meant conflict between imperial nation states; it did not include the violence those states routinely visited on colonial subjects during peacetime. Tacking back and forth between metropole and colony, between world war and police action, Saint-Amour describes the interwar refashioning of a world system of violence-production, one that remains largely intact in our own moment of perpetual interwar.

Global Cold War Literature

Novel andthe Cold War in Latin America Neil Larsen One of thecollateral
ifperhaps somewhat fortuitous benefitsof the ... that modernism and modernity
were consubstantial categories, that modernism was somehow already
precontained in ...

Author: Andrew Hammond

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1136511296

Category: Literary Criticism

Page: 256

View: 676

In countries worldwide, the Cold War dominated politics, society and culture during the second half of the twentieth century. Global Cold War Literatures offers a unique look at the multiple ways in which writers from Asia, Africa, Europe and North and South America addressed the military conflicts, revolutions, propaganda wars and ideological debates of the era. While including essays on western European and North American literature, the volume views First World writing, not as central to the period, but as part of an international discussion of Cold War realities in which the most interesting contributions often came from marginal or subordinate cultures. To this end, there is an emphasis on the literatures of the Second and Third Worlds, including essays on Latin American poetry, Soviet travel writing, Chinese autobiography, African theatre, North Korean literature, Cuban and eastern European fiction, and Middle Eastern fiction and poetry. With the post-Cold War era still in a condition of emergence, it is essential that we look back to the 1945-89 period to understand the political and cultural forces that shaped the modern world. The volume’s analysis of those forces and its focus on many of the ‘hot spots’ – Afghanistan, Iran, North Korea – that define the contemporary ‘war on terror’, make this an essential resources for those working in Postcolonial, American and English Literatures, as well as in History, Comparative Literature, European Studies and Cultural Studies. Global Cold War Literatures is a suitable companion volume to Hammond's Cold War Literature: Writing the Global Conflict, also available from Routledge.

Southern Modernist

Arthur Raper from the New Deal to the Cold War Louis Mazzari ... He was in
Taiwan during the McCarthy hearings, he was in Saigon during the Korean War,
and later, during the Freedom Rides, he and Martha were working in the delta of
the ...

Author: Louis Mazzari

Publisher: LSU Press

ISBN: 080713189X

Category: History

Page: 416

View: 214

Louis Mazzari brings to the fore one of the most important figures of the southern regionalist movement in the New Deal era. His is the first biography of Arthur Raper, a progressive sociologist, writer, and public intellectual who advocated racial and social justice in the South when such views were not only unpopular but dangerous, effectively laying a foundation for the civil rights movement of the 1950s and 1960s.Raper was one of the first white southern scholars to speak out against lynching, sharecropping, and tenant farming in his pioneering and highly influential books The Tragedy of Lynching(1933), Preface to Peasantry (1936), Sharecroppers All (1941), and Tenants of the Almighty (1943). He also contributed significantly to Gunnar Myrdal's important study of U.S. race relations, An American Dilemma (1944). Mazzari carefully dissects Raper's works, casting them in a larger historical context and examining both the acclaim and anger they elicited in the South. He portrays Raper as a political and social radical fighting against southern racial and economic problems during the country's transition from an agrarian culture to a modern one, in an effort to keep the region from falling even further behind in an increasingly sophisticated world. Hostility toward his beliefs eventually led Raper to leave the South. He worked on the reconstruction of Japan after World War II and in Asia, Africa, and the Middle East at the height of the Cold War, promoting the same mix of federal planning and local control he had practiced in the New Deal South.In the life of Arthur Raper, Mazzari locates a larger story of liberalism in the white South. Raised on a North Carolina tobacco farm and educated at Chapel Hill under Howard Odum, Raper was remarkable for taking up issues of race and class to advocate modern views in a part of the world where adherence to the past was almost pathological -- and then going on to advance a liberal modernist version of Jeffersonian democracy throughout the Third World. He looked critically at the causes of racial violence and successfully conveyed scientific sociology into broad circulation through mass culture.

Cold War Modern

Modernism between Peace and Freedom : Picasso and Others at the Congress
of Intellectuals in Wrocław , 1948 ... key to understanding some of the dilemmas
of Cold War modernism , torn between commitment to both social radicalism and
 ...

Author: David Crowley

Publisher: Victoria & Albert Museum

ISBN: 9781851775705

Category: Art

Page: 319

View: 666

This ground-breaking study of modern art, architecture, design and film examines the Cold War as a conflict between differing conceptions of modern life. This was a period of great political tensions and exceptional creativity touching every aspect of life, from everyday products to the highest arenas of human achievement in science and culture. Art and design played a central role in representing and sometimes challenging the dominant political and social ideas of the age. "Cold War Modern" is an ambitious review of the geography of Cold War modernity, including works from the Socialist Bloc and western Europe, the United States, Cuba and Japan. Essays on subjects as diverse as Cold War strategy, domesticity and hi-tech design developments are illustrated with remarkable images by internationally renowned artists and designers from Picasso to Kubrick, alongside the forgotten figures of the Cold War era.

Sanctioning Modernism

This search ultimately converged around the question of the “sanctioning” of
architectural modernism, with its broad popularization, validation, and
institutionalization after World War II. Indeed, if the Cold War conditioned an “
anxious” postwar ...

Author: Timothy Parker

Publisher: University of Texas Press

ISBN: 0292757255

Category: Architecture

Page: 304

View: 998

In the decades following World War II, modern architecture spread around the globe alongside increased modernization, urbanization, and postwar reconstruction—and it eventually won widespread acceptance. But as the limitations of conventional conceptions of modernism became apparent, modern architecture has come under increasing criticism. In this collection of essays, experienced and emerging scholars take a fresh look at postwar modern architecture by asking what it meant to be "modern," what role modern architecture played in constructing modern identities, and who sanctioned (or was sanctioned by) modernism in architecture. This volume presents focused case studies of modern architecture in three realms—political, religious, and domestic—that address our very essence as human beings. Several essays explore developments in Czechoslovakia, Romania, and Yugoslavia and document a modernist design culture that crossed political barriers, such as the Iron Curtain, more readily than previously imagined. Other essays investigate various efforts to reconcile the concerns of modernist architects with the traditions of the Roman Catholic Church and other Christian institutions. And a final group of essays looks at postwar homebuilding in the United States and demonstrates how malleable and contested the image of the American home was in the mid-twentieth century. These inquiries show the limits of canonical views of modern architecture and reveal instead how civic institutions, ecclesiastical traditions, individual consumers, and others sought to sanction the forms and ideas of modern architecture in the service of their respective claims or desires to be modern.

Literature and Film in Cold War South Korea

... literary figures associated with the modernism of the 1930s, such as Pak T'ae-
wo ̆n and Yi T'ae-jun, could not be discussed. Nor was the post1945
emergence of a narrative of nationalist anticolonial resistance prepared to
address the late ...

Author: Theodore Hughes

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 0231157495

Category: Literary Criticism

Page: 304

View: 395

Korean writers and filmmakers crossed literary and visual cultures in multilayered ways under Japanese colonial rule (1910–1945). Taking advantage of new modes and media that emerged in the early twentieth century, these artists sought subtle strategies for representing the realities of colonialism and global modernity. Theodore Hughes begins by unpacking the relations among literature, film, and art in Korea’s colonial period, paying particular attention to the emerging proletarian movement, literary modernism, nativism, and wartime mobilization. He then demonstrates how these developments informed the efforts of post-1945 writers and filmmakers as they confronted the aftershocks of colonialism and the formation of separate regimes in North and South Korea. Hughes puts neglected Korean literary texts, art, and film into conversation with studies on Japanese imperialism and Korea’s colonial history. At the same time, he locates post-1945 South Korean cultural production within the transnational circulation of texts, ideas, and images that took place in the first three decades of the Cold War. The incorporation of the Korean Peninsula into the global Cold War order, Hughes argues, must be understood through the politics of the visual. In Literature and Film in Cold War South Korea, he identifies ways of seeing that are central to the organization of a postcolonial culture of division, authoritarianism, and modernization.

Tickle Your Catastrophe

At the beginning of the twenty-first century, the legacy of post-Cold War
modernism can evoke 'archaeological' feelings. Often not yet considered to be of
art historical value by officials, many modernist buildings from the fifties, sixties
and ...

Author: Frederik Le Roy

Publisher: Academia Press

ISBN: 9038217226

Category: Philosophy

Page: 215

View: 411

A collection of essays that takes stock of the current impact of the image and imagination of the catastrophe in art, science and philosophy