Conducting the Reference Interview Third Edition

This article includes a discussion of the training program for reference staff in two pilot projects using Second Life (an online virtual world). It found that the skills for conducting the reference interview are ...

Author: Catherine Sheldrick Ross

Publisher: American Library Association

ISBN: 0838917275

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 344

View: 258

Based on the latest research in communication theory but tailored specifically for real-world application, this updated manual speaks equally to the needs of students preparing to enter the profession and those who are already fielding reference inquiries. The authors, working in consultation with a stellar advisory board of scholars and practitioners, present a convenient and comprehensive resource that will teach you how to understand the needs of public, academic, and special library users across any virtual setting—including email, text messaging, and social media—as well as in traditional and face-to-face models of communication. Packed with exercises and examples to help you practice effective reference transactions and avoid common pitfalls, this book tackles the fundamentals of the reference interview, from why it’s important in the first place to methods for setting the stage for a successful interview and techniques for finding out what the library user really wants to know; covers the ins and outs of the readers’ advisory interview; examines a wide range of contexts, such as children, young adults, parents, seniors, adults from diverse communities, and those with disabilities; presents case studies of innovative reference and user encounters at a variety of libraries; offers updated coverage of virtual reference, including new research, virtual reality transcripts, and a look at crowd-sourcing reference via social media; features new content on common microaggressions, with guidance on how to use awareness of emotion as a factor in reference interactions to ensure better outcomes; discusses topics such as respecting/protecting privacy, overcoming assumptions, implicit judgment, the importance of context, determining the real information need, and many other lessons learned from challenging reference encounters; and thoroughly addresses policy and training procedures, as well as the unique challenges faced by paraprofessionals and non-degreed staff. Find your bearings in the continually evolving hybrid reference environment through proven strategies, advice, exercises, and research from three experts in the field.

Communicating Professionally Third Edition

When librarians think of interviewing, the reference interview is probably the first thing that comes to mind. However, there are many other kinds of interviews that are commonly used in library settings—for example, interviews for ...

Author: Catherine Sheldrick Ross

Publisher: American Library Association

ISBN: 1555709087

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 472

View: 794

An updated and expanded version of the training guide Booklist called "one of the most valuable professional publications to come off the presses in a long time," the new third edition of Communicating Professionally is completely revised with new sections outlining the opportunities offered by contemporary communication media. With more resource information on cross-cultural communication, including new applications of communication principles and the latest research-based material on communication in general, this comprehensive manual covers Fundamental skills such as listening, speaking, and writing Reading others’ nonverbal behavior How to integrate skills, with tips for practicing Sense-making, a theory of information as communication Common interactions like speaking one-on-one, working in groups, and giving presentations Training others in communication skills, including a special section on technology-based training

Libraries in the Information Age An Introduction and Career Exploration 3rd Edition

“You and Me and Google Makes Three: Welcoming Google into the Reference Interview. ... (accessed February 1, 2015) Hysell, Shannon Graff, ed. ... Conducting the Reference Interview: A How-To-Do-It Manual for Librarians. 2nd ed.

Author: Denise K. Fourie

Publisher: ABC-CLIO

ISBN: 1610698657

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 349

View: 222

The book Library Media Connection cited as something "all librarians need to have on their shelves" is now thoroughly revised for today's 21st-century library environment. Covering both technology and library practices, the title has been a go-to text for librarians and library school students since 2002. • Thoroughly revises and updates a popular text for LIS or LTA programs that can also be used in MLIS curricula and for four-year programs in library studies and information studies • Provides a succinct introduction to the library industry and a practical overview of the field from seasoned practitioners • Brings together learnings from academic, public, special, and school libraries as well as archives and historical agencies, presenting material with both depth and breadth • Is applicable as an introduction for library funding agencies and public library trustees or boards

Safety Professional s Reference and Study Guide Third Edition

Every employee should also be able to say precisely what he or she is expected to do as part of the program. And all employees should know where to go and the route to follow in an emergency.1 When conducting employee interviews, ...

Author: W. David Yates

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 100002976X

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 882

View: 984

This new edition serves both as a reference guide for the experienced professional and as a preparation source for those desiring certifications. It’s an invaluable resource and a must-have addition to every safety professional’s library. Safety Professional’s Reference and Study Guide, Third Edition, is written to serve as a useful reference tool for the experienced practicing safety professional, as well as a study guide for university students and those preparing for the Certified Safety Professional examination. It addresses major topics of the safety and health profession and includes the latest version of the Board of Certified Safety Professional (BCSP) reference sheet, a directory of resources and associations, as well as state and federal agency contact information. Additionally, this new edition offers new chapters and resources that will delight every reader. This book aids the prospective examination candidate and the practicing safety professional, by showing them, step-by-step, how to solve each question/formula listed on the BCSP examination and provide examples on how and when to utilize them.

Topgrading 3rd Edition

And even though search executives will do reference checks with former bosses if you require them to, you should perform tandem Topgrading Interviews and personally conduct duplicate reference checks yourself.

Author: Bradford D. Smart Ph.D.

Publisher: Penguin

ISBN: 1101583819

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 368

View: 817

“BRAD HELPED US DEVELOP THE TOOLS TO PICK A-PLAYER LEADERS AT GE.” —JACK WELCH Great companies, large and small, rise or fall because of their talent; the more high performers on your team, the more successful your organization will be. Of course, that’s easier said than done. Research shows that only about 25% of all new hires turn out to be high performers. But companies that have used Brad Smart’s Topgrading system over the past two decades have boosted their hiring success rates dramatically—sometimes even to 90%. Three huge problems account for the typical poor results in hiring: dishonesty (via deceptive résumés), incomplete information (via shallow interviews), and lack of verifiability (via biased references). Topgrading shows how to solve all three problems. Instead of hir­ing by your gut reactions to résumés and interviews, you can start using a scientifically honed process that compels candidates to be totally honest. Smart, one of the world’s foremost experts on hiring, has personally helped hundreds of compa­nies double, triple, or even quadruple their hiring success rates. His clients have ranged from global giants such as General Electric and Honeywell to midsize and small businesses in every field imagin­able, and to not-for-profits such as the American Heart Association. And hundreds of thousands of readers have applied the lessons and tools of the first two editions of Topgrading. The Topgrading system makes hiring easier, faster, and more successful than any other process. And it works at every level, from the front lines to senior management. For the first time in seven years, Smart has fully revised and updated Topgrading with many new tools, techniques, and case studies. This edition now features 40 companies of all sizes, across a wide range of industries and home countries. It’s the most advanced and useful version of Topgrading ever. The third edition includes: Simplified Topgrading methods for entry-level jobs. The new Topgrading Snapshot, which screens out weak candidates in just 15 seconds. The latest version of the acclaimed Topgrading Interview script. Case studies from 35 companies not featured in any previous edition. Many additional innovations created by Topgraders. Topgrading isn’t just about hiring and promot­ing—it’s also about developing talent. It enables leaders to reward their A Players, coach their Bs to become As, and weed out the Cs who are beyond improvement. Many great leaders know that Topgrading works. Find out how it can help your company gain a big competitive advantage.

Online Searching

2009. Conducting the Reference Interview: A How-to-Do-It Manual for Librarians. 2nd ed. New York: NealSchuman. ... everything you always wanted to know about the reference interview, and its third edition should be available in 2019.

Author: Karen Markey

Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield

ISBN: 1538115093

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 424

View: 835

Online Searching is your complete guide to becoming a superstar searcher, wielding advanced searching features, strategies, and tactics for answering questions on any topic under the sun as well as finding answers in trusted, quality sources.

The Pleasures of Reading A Booklover s Alphabet

Her published works include Libraries Unlimited's Reading Matters: What the Research Reveals about Reading, Libraries, and Community; Conducting the Reference Interview, second edition; and Communicating Professionally, third edition.

Author: Catherine Sheldrick Ross

Publisher: ABC-CLIO

ISBN: 1610694333

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 270

View: 786

Based on years of ground-breaking research, this book supplies a look at the unique relationship between each text and the individual reader that results in a satisfying, pleasurable, and even life-changing reading experience. • Supplies succinct, authoritative, and readable accounts on a wide range of genre literature and explains why these types of books appeal to readers • Promotes the librarian's role with readers and helps librarians design readers' advisory services to better serve readers • Offers valuable insights into readers and reading based on reading research • Includes an extensive bibliography and list of relevant titles for further reading • Provides a fascinating read for librarians, educators, and avid readers

Reference and Information Services An Introduction 6th Edition

2019. Conducting the Reference Interview. 3rd ed. Chicago, IL: Neal-Schuman. Grounded in communication theory, this volume offers practical advice for conducting a successful reference interview across different settings and modalities.

Author: Melissa A. Wong

Publisher: ABC-CLIO

ISBN: 1440868840

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 748

View: 256

This revised and updated sixth edition of Reference and Information Services continues the book's rich tradition, covering all phases of reference and information services with less emphasis on print and more emphasis on strategies and scenarios. Reference and Information Services is the go-to textbook for MSLIS and i-School courses on reference services and related topics. It is also a helpful handbook for practitioners. Authors include LIS faculty and professionals who have relevant degrees in their areas and who have published extensively on their topics. The first half of the book provides an overview of reference services and techniques for service provision, including the reference interview, ethics, instruction, evaluation and assessment, and services to diverse populations including children. This part of the book establishes a foundation of knowledge on reference service and frames each topic with ethical and social justice perspectives. The second part of the book offers an overview of the information life cycle and dissemination of information, followed by an in-depth examination of information sources by type-including dictionaries, encyclopedias, indexes, and abstracts-as well as by broad subject areas including government, statistics and data, health, and legal information. This second part introduces the tools and resources that reference professionals use to provide the services described in the first half of the text. Reference and Information Services is a recognized textbook for information retrieval courses and updates the previous edition Editors and contributors are experts in the field Activity boxes engage readers and invite them to reflect on what they are learning and practice skills through real-life exercises Conscious integration of critical theory and social justice perspectives offers critical reflection on the standards and practices of the field and encourages readers to consider alternate perspectives

Knowledge Management in Theory and Practice third edition

Information professionals have a solid foundation in library and information science skills and are already very adept at skills such as structured interviewing (as they conduct reference interviews) and the development of ...

Author: Kimiz Dalkir

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 0262342804

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 552

View: 947

A new, thoroughly updated edition of a comprehensive overview of knowledge management (KM), covering theoretical foundations, the KM process, tools, and professions. The ability to manage knowledge has become increasingly important in today's knowledge economy. Knowledge is considered a valuable commodity, embedded in products and in the tacit knowledge of highly mobile individual employees. Knowledge management (KM) represents a deliberate and systematic approach to cultivating and sharing an organization's knowledge base. This textbook and professional reference offers a comprehensive overview of the field. Drawing on ideas, tools, and techniques from such disciplines as sociology, cognitive science, organizational behavior, and information science, it describes KM theory and practice at the individual, community, and organizational levels. Chapters cover such topics as tacit and explicit knowledge, theoretical modeling of KM, the KM cycle from knowledge capture to knowledge use, KM tools, KM assessment, and KM professionals. This third edition has been completely revised and updated to reflect advances in the dynamic and emerging field of KM. The specific changes include extended treatment of tacit knowledge; integration of such newer technologies as social media, visualization, mobile technologies, and crowdsourcing; a new chapter on knowledge continuity, with key criteria for identifying knowledge at risk; material on how to identify, document, validate, share, and implement lessons learned and best practices; the addition of new categories of KM jobs; and a new emphasis on the role of KM in innovation. Supplementary materials for instructors are available online.

Envisioning the Future of Reference Trends Reflections and Innovations

An award-winning author, her latest books are Familia: Digital and Information Literacy for the Latinx Community with Stefani Gomez (forthcoming, 2020), Conducting the Reference Interview, 3rd edition, with Catherine Sheldrick Ross and ...

Author: Diane Zabel

Publisher: ABC-CLIO

ISBN: 1440867380

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 176

View: 659

Offering a broad overview of consequential changes in the landscape of reference services, this guide also provides practical guidance on how to meet the new challenges they present. For the past decade, librarians have been lamenting the demise of reference services. Encouraging recent research shows that reference librarians are actually in more demand than ever; however, nearly everything about reference has changed-from technologies, tools, and techniques to models of service. What are these changes, and how can the profession respond to and prepare for shifting priorities and user needs? In this volume, business librarians Diane Zabel and Lauren Reiter bring together a host of experts to answer these timely questions. Topics range from the education and training of professionals to meeting the needs and wants of employers. Covered are trends in chat reference, research consultations, do-it-yourself reference, tracking trends with user populations, assessment, and data-driven decisions about reference services. Grounded in the principle that regardless of the evolutions in service, the user remains at the center of reference, this guide offers readers an exciting look at the future of this important public service. Informs librarians of trends currently affecting the profession and shows how to deal with them Covers a wide array of topics, from those affecting the education of reference services to assessment of services Provides an in-depth look at new models in reference services

The Art of Aesthetic Surgery Three Volume Set Third Edition

Step 10.3.6 6: Conduct Second Interviews with Two or Three Candidates At the end of the first round of interviews, you should expect to have ... In the final steps, you'll assess their workstyle and skills and conduct reference checks.

Author: Foad Nahai

Publisher: Thieme

ISBN: 1684200369

Category: Medical

Page: 1700

View: 780

The ultimate guide to aesthetic surgery from world famous aesthetic surgeon Foad Nahai The Art of Aesthetic Surgery, Principles and Techniques, Third Edition by internationally revered aesthetic surgeon Foad Nahai, five distinguished co-editors, and more than 100 new contributors is an encyclopedic, three-volume masterwork. Considered the quintessential resource on cosmetic surgery since its inception, the new edition features an e-book and access to online videos for the first time. The updated text and videos reflect significant and numerous exciting developments in aesthetic medicine and surgery. An impressive group of renowned global experts contribute valuable insights, pearls, and considerable expertise. Twenty new chapters feature a wealth of diverse state-of-the-art topics, while other chapters have been updated and greatly expanded. New areas of focus include practice management, volume enhancement in periorbital and facial rejuvenation, minimally invasive neck techniques, and body contouring procedures such as umbilicoplasty. Patient safety is prominent, with a major chapter on safety considerations in aesthetic surgery, as well as discussion of complications in different anatomic regions. Key Highlights A state-of-the-art review of facial aesthetic surgery, with detailed coverage of all the key techniques needed to achieve facial rejuvenation The latest primary and revision breast surgery techniques for augmentation, reduction, mastopexy, fat grafting, and asymmetry management Significant new chapters on minimally invasive treatments reflect enormous changes in this field since the last edition The addition of two new dedicated sections on genital rejuvenation and gender affirming surgery About 6,000 beautiful illustrations enhance understanding of state-of-the-art approaches An expanded video library featuring 14 new clips and the addition of pre- and post-op patient images provides expert procedural guidance This quintessential resource provides trainees and experienced practitioners with a solid foundation for learning basic principles and techniques in aesthetic surgery, with the ultimate goal of improving patient outcomes, developing innovations, and advancing the specialty.

Understanding Human Information Behavior

Conducting the Reference Interview (3rd ed.). Chicago, IL: ALA Neal-Schuman. Rubin, J., & Chisnell, D. (2008). Handbook of Usability Testing: How to Plan, Design and Conduct Effective Tests (2nd ed.). New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Author: Beth St. Jean

Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield

ISBN: 1538119145

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 306

View: 943

This introductory textbook for undergraduate students in information science, information studies, computer science, and related disciplines provides an applied grounding in information behavior. The book positions information behavior as a foundational element undergirding all of the information and computer science disciplines and professions

Fundamentals of Library Supervision Third Edition

It is important to be consistent in conducting all reference checks. When checking references, keep notes of the people contacted, what questions were asked, and what answers you received. And, as with interview FIGURE 2.2 ...

Author: Beth McNeil

Publisher: American Library Association

ISBN: 083891554X

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 256

View: 207

Reference and Information Services An Introduction 4th Edition

10. Alfred Benjamin, The Helping Interview, 3rd ed. (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1981), 85–96. 11. Fred Oser, “Referens Simplex or the Mysteries of Reference Interviewing Revealed,” The Reference Librarian 16 (1987): 72. 12.

Author: Richard E Bopp

Publisher: ABC-CLIO

ISBN: 1598848178

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 743

View: 395

Reflecting the dramatic changes shaped by rapidly developing technologies over the past six years, this new fourth edition of Reference and Information Services takes the introduction to reference sources and services significantly beyond the content of the first three editions. In Part I, Concepts and Processes, chapters have been revised and updated to reflect new ideas and methods in the provision of reference service in an era when many users have access to the Web. In Part II, Information Sources and Their Use, discussion of each source type has been updated to encompass key resources in print and on the Web, where an increasing number of freely available sources join those purchased or licensed by libraries. A number of new authors are contributors to this new edition, bringing to their chapters their experience as teachers of reference and as practitioners in different types of libraries. Discussions of services in Part I integrate digital reference as appropriate to each topic, such as how to conduct a reference interview online using instant messaging. Boxes interspersed in the text are used to present scenarios for discussion, to highlight key concepts, or to present excerpts from important documents. Discussions of sources in Part II place more emphasis on designing effective search strategies using both print and digital resources. The chapter on selection and evaluation of sources addresses the changing nature of reference collections and how to evaluate new types of sources. Each chapter concludes with an updated list of additional readings to guide further study. A new companion website will provide links to Web-accessible readings and resources as well as additional scenarios for discussion and example search strategies to supplement those presented in the text.

The First Interview Third Edition

For decades, clinicians have used structured and semistructured interviews to gather health care data. ... I've written out screening questions (boldface) twice: just below, where you can copy them for ready reference; and again at the ...

Author: James Morrison

Publisher: Guilford Press

ISBN: 1606237985

Category: Medical

Page: 370

View: 351

This indispensable clinical guidebook describes and illustrates how to conduct a successful diagnostic mental health interview. James Morrison details effective methods for posing clinical questions; what the clinician should ask to obtain complete, accurate information; and how to select the best strategy to meet any clinical situation. Throughout, the author interweaves research on what works in mental health interviewing along with fresh insights on how to build rapport and enhance patient motivation.

Research Methods in Library and Information Science 7th Edition

Her latest books are Conducting the Reference Interview, 3rd ed., with Catherine Sheldrick Ross and Kirsti Nilsen (2019), Library Conversations: Reclaiming Interpersonal Communication Theory for Understanding Professional Encounters ...

Author: Lynn Silipigni Connaway

Publisher: ABC-CLIO

ISBN: 1440878587

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 475

View: 103

The seventh edition of this frequently adopted textbook features new or expanded sections on social justice research, data analysis software, scholarly identity research, social networking, data science, and data visualization, among other topics. It continues to include discipline experts' voices. The revised seventh edition of this popular text provides instruction and guidance for professionals and students in library and information science who want to conduct research and publish findings, as well as for practicing professionals who want a broad overview of the current literature. Providing a broad introduction to research design, the authors include principles, data collection techniques, and analyses of quantitative and qualitative methods, as well as advantages and limitations of each method and updated bibliographies. Chapters cover the scientific method, sampling, validity, reliability, and ethical concerns along with quantitative and qualitative methods. LIS students and professionals will consult this text not only for instruction on conducting research but also for guidance in critically reading and evaluating research publications, proposals, and reports. As in the previous edition, discipline experts provide advice, tips, and strategies for completing research projects, dissertations, and theses; writing grants; overcoming writer's block; collaborating with colleagues; and working with outside consultants. Journal and book editors discuss how to publish and identify best practices and understudied topics, as well as what they look for in submissions. Features new or expanded sections on social justice research; virtual collaboration, data collection, and dissemination; scholarly communication; computer-assisted qualitative and quantitative data analysis; scholarly identity research and guidelines; data science; and visualization of quantitative and qualitative data Provides a broad and comprehensive overview and update, especially of research published over the past five years Highlights school, public, and academic research findings Relies on the coauthors' expertise in research design, securing grant funding, and using the latest technology and data analysis software

Business Communication 3rd Edition

You have been called for an interview for the following posts in different organizations: (a) Manager Trainee, State Bank of India (b) Lecturer, ... State what preparations you will make before and during the conduct of the interviews.

Author: Madhukar R.K.

Publisher: Vikas Publishing House

ISBN: 9352710894

Category: Business & Economics


View: 768

It is a comprehensive textbook especially designed for the students of commerce, management and other professional courses. It serves both as a learner´s text and a practitioner´s guide. It provides a sharp focus on all relevant concepts and cardinal principles of business communication and adds value to the reader´s understanding of the subject. Following a need-based and sequential approach, the book is highly stimulating and leads students to communicate with élan and prepare for work place challenges.

Reference Manual on Scientific Evidence

Third Edition National Research Council, Federal Judicial Center, Policy and Global Affairs, Committee on Science, ... ofpreset questions.120 Many instruments require that the person conducting the interview be trained in their use; ...

Author: National Research Council

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 0309214211

Category: Political Science

Page: 1034

View: 860

The Reference Manual on Scientific Evidence, Third Edition, assists judges in managing cases involving complex scientific and technical evidence by describing the basic tenets of key scientific fields from which legal evidence is typically derived and by providing examples of cases in which that evidence has been used. First published in 1994 by the Federal Judicial Center, the Reference Manual on Scientific Evidence has been relied upon in the legal and academic communities and is often cited by various courts and others. Judges faced with disputes over the admissibility of scientific and technical evidence refer to the manual to help them better understand and evaluate the relevance, reliability and usefulness of the evidence being proffered. The manual is not intended to tell judges what is good science and what is not. Instead, it serves to help judges identify issues on which experts are likely to differ and to guide the inquiry of the court in seeking an informed resolution of the conflict. The core of the manual consists of a series of chapters (reference guides) on various scientific topics, each authored by an expert in that field. The topics have been chosen by an oversight committee because of their complexity and frequency in litigation. Each chapter is intended to provide a general overview of the topic in lay terms, identifying issues that will be useful to judges and others in the legal profession. They are written for a non-technical audience and are not intended as exhaustive presentations of the topic. Rather, the chapters seek to provide judges with the basic information in an area of science, to allow them to have an informed conversation with the experts and attorneys.

Reference and Instructional Services for Information Literacy Skills in School Libraries 3rd Edition

E-mail reference services were simple, in that all you need to provide the ser- vice was an e-mail address. ... The real-time nature enables the librarian to conduct a reference interview and receive feedback from the customer about the ...

Author: Scott Lanning

Publisher: ABC-CLIO

ISBN: 1610696727

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 170

View: 148

Students need to be able to distinguish good information from bad. This book gives you the tools to transmit those essential skills to your students. • Covers theories of information behavior, models of information literacy, and provision of reference services in various mediums • Emphasizes reference and instructional services and examines the impact of the Common Core State Standards on reference services in schools • Explains how to conduct the reference interview

Finding the Answers to Legal Questions Second Edition

For further information about conducting a reference interview, see: Ross, C. S., K. Nilsen, and M. L. Radford. 2009. Conducting the Reference Interview, 2nd ed. New York: Neal-Schuman. With all of this in mind, ...

Author: Virginia M. Tucker

Publisher: American Library Association

ISBN: 0838915698

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 256

View: 550

Whether for self-representation, to be an informed consumer of legal services, or to learn the U.S. legal system, more people than ever are using the library to obtain legal information and legal research advice. The new edition of Finding the Answers to Legal Questions is a comprehensive guide to help librarians confidently assist users in finding the legal information they need. Newly revised and updated, this timely, clearly organized, and easy-to-use resource is packed with guidance to help librarians answer questions that span the gamut of the law. An ideal book for practicing librarians looking to better serve users' legal needs, as well as for students preparing for careers as librarians, it provides an overview of fundamental legal information, including the basic structure of the U.S. legal system and primary law;how-to instructions for finding primary law in print sources, free websites, and pay-for-view databases;information on how to evaluate the trustworthiness of online and print resources;tips for conducting a legal reference interview;guidance for handling common legal questions, such as lawsuits, family law, landlord-tenant disputes, wills and estate planning, debt, bankruptcy, employment, and criminal law; andadvice on how to build a basic legal reference collection. This book will help librarians connect users to the most accurate, up-to-date legal information.