The turmoil arising with the French Revolution promoted the continuing interpenetration of the Catholic revival and conservatism , first , with Christian millenarian movements and 22 CONSERVATIVE MILLENARIANS.
Author: Paul Gottfried
Category: Literary Criticism
Conservative Millenarians: The Romantic Experience in Bavaria by Paul Gottfried is an account of the various individuals in early nineteenth century Bavaria whose thinking may be described as conservative, romantic, and utopian. These individuals were often part of a revival in Catholicism and expressed admiration for the Middle Ages and Christian mysticism. They were utopian, yet reactionary, seeking to restore a lost past from which the modern age was believed to have fallen. They may be described as counter-revolutionaries, opposing the French Revolution, defined by the Catholic traditionalist and reactionary Joseph de Maistre as "not a contrary revolution, but the contrary of revolution". Gottfried begins his book by discussing the Catholic revival, the rise of millenarianism and romanticism. Prime among the figures involved in the Catholic romantic revival include Novalis (pen name of Friedrich von Hardenberg, poet, scientist, and philosopher), Adam Muller (Protestantconvert to Catholicism and romantic economic theorist advocating a corporativist state, based on medieval society), Friedrich Schlegel (expositor of romanticism, originally a radical individualist and admirer of the ancient Greeks, Indians, and other pagans who became a convert to Catholicism), Joseph von Gorres (early proponent of the revolution who grew disenchanted and became a defender of Catholicism), and Franz von Baader (romantic and social philosopher, a Catholic who was influenced bymysticism particularly the thought of the Lutheran apostate Jakob Boehme). While these Catholic revolutionaries shared political ideals with such thinkers as Burke (the father of conservativism and opponent of revolution), Joseph de Maistre (reactionary traditionalist Catholic), and de Toqueville (Catholic writer on the "ancien regime" and opponent of democracy), they also were influenced heavily by mysticism and German idealism, including such mystics as Jakob Boehme, Jung-Stilling, Saint-Martin, and the Pietists. Gottfried next turns his attention to the age of Montgelas, in which various laws were enacted which resulted in oppression for the church and clergy. Here, Gottfried notes the influence of various rationalists, including the Bavarian Illuminati of Adam Weishaupt and the Rosicrucians, who plotted against throne and altar. Weishaupt, a professor of canon law, created the Illuminati modeling his society after the Jesuits in 1776, actively conspiring to murder the king and adhering to rationalist beliefs. Weishaupt along with Adolf von Knigge (a fellow Illuminatus) actively opposed other mystical doctrines such as those of the Swedenborgians and the Rosicrucians. The Rosicrucians were another initiatory society, whose presence was revealed in the various manifestos which appeared at the time. Believed to have been founded by Christian Rosenkreuz, the Rosicrucians were an invisible society of elite scientists and philosophers who would create a utopia. The chief Rosicrucian manifesto to appear is believed to have been authored by the Lutheran minister Johann Valentin Andreae, who actively opposed the papacy and Catholic reaction. Other individuals actively influenced by Rosicrucian mysticism, along with the writings of Paracelsus, include Karl von Eckarthausen and Gotthilf Heinrich von Schubert whose book _The Symbolism of Dreams_ was to play an important role in the romantic movement. Indeed, many romantics were especially influenced by Rosicrucianism as well as Martinism (the mysticism of Saint-Martin) and the Jewish Cabbala, though they often denied this influence. The thought of Schelling, who although a Protestant was much admired by Catholics, also played a prominent part in the development of the romantic movement. Throughout this discussion, Gottfried demonstrates the various conflicts which arose particularly between Catholics and Protestants as well as conflicts involving the Jews. Another important component of the romantic movement was that of "the Awakening", a movement started by many Catholic parish priests who sought to imitate Protestant pietism within Catholicism but were also repulsed by Enlightenment rationalism. Individuals involved in this movement included Johann Michael Sailer and Johann Ringseis, Catholic priests who sought an Awakening. In the era of Ludwig I, Catholicism witnessed a revival and romantics led the way in propagating the faith. In such journals as the Athenaeum, romantics actively sought the origins of human existence, often dabbling in non-Western religions, including the Vedas, as well as ancient Greek myth (arguing that the ancient Greeks were precursors of Christianity). Romantics also exposited an eschatology in which a coming conflict with modernism would bring about the reign of Antichrist. Romantics actively made war with both liberalism and modernism, advocating a corporativist medieval state as an alternative to class conflict. For thinkers such as Muller and von Baader, the role of the worker played an important part in their economic theories. Indeed, Gottfried notes the influence that romanticism may have played on the thought of early socialists including Karl Marx. This book is an important source of information, providing much material on an otherwise neglected historical topic. The conservative romantics, although frequently maligned because of baseless associations with the Third Reich, presented an important alternative to the decadenceof modernity. Their thinking will continue to live on in those who believe that traditional society is superior to the alternative of decadent modern civilization.
Beautiful Losers: Essays on the Failure of American Conservatism. ... Revolution from the Middle: Columns and Articles from Chronicles, 1989–1996. Raleigh, N.C.: Middle American Press, 1997. Gottfried, Paul. Conservative Millenarians ...
Author: Joseph A. Scotchie
Category: Political Science
"Paleoconservatism" as a concept came into circulation during the 1980s as a rejoinder to the rise of neoconservatism. It signifies a brand of conservatism that rose up in opposition to the New Deal, setting itself against the centralizing trends that define modern politics to champion the republican virtues of self-governance and celebrate the nation's varied and colorful regional cultures. This volume brings together key writings of the major representatives of "Old Right" thought, past and present. The essays included here define a coherent intellectual tradition linking New York libertarians to unreconstructed Southern traditionalists to Midwestern agrarians. Part I is devoted to the founding fathers of the modern conservative movement. Essays by Frank Chodorov, Murray Rothbard, and James Burnham attack economic aspects of the New Deal, big government in general, and high taxes. Russell Kirk introduces the cultural paleoconservatism, with its preference for social classes and distinctions of age and sex, while Richard Weaver explains why culture is more important to a civilization's survival than mere material conditions. The second part covers the contemporary resurgence of the Old Right. Chilton Williamson, Jr. sets out the argument against large-scale immigration on cultural and economic grounds. The divisive issue of trade is covered. William Hawkins outlines a mercantilist trade policy at odds with the free trade libertarianism of Chodorov and Rothbard. On education, Allan Carlson goes further than the Beltway Right in his advocacy of home schooling. M.E. Bradford shows how the doctrine of equality of opportunity inevitably leads to greater and more tyrannical state action. The contemporary culture wars are the focus of Thomas Fleming, Paul Gottfried, Clyde Wilson, and Samuel Francis, who search for the roots of American nationalism, the lessons to be drawn from the past, and how they may be applied in the future.
In Conservative Millenarians (1979), Gottfried examines romantic conservatism in Bavaria in the early decades of the nineteenth century. He shows how a chiliastic faith in the historical consciousness was chastened by a growing sense of ...
Author: Bruce Frohnen
Publisher: Open Road Media
“A must-own title.” —National Review Online American Conservatism: An Encyclopedia is the first comprehensive reference volume to cover what is surely the most influential political and intellectual movement of the past half century. More than fifteen years in the making—and more than half a million words in length—this informative and entertaining encyclopedia contains substantive entries on those persons, events, organizations, and concepts of major importance to postwar American conservatism. Its contributors include iconic patriarchs of the conservative and libertarian movements, celebrated scholars, well-known authors, and influential movement activists and leaders. Ranging from “abortion” to “Zoll, Donald Atwell,” and written from viewpoints as various as those which have informed the postwar conservative movement itself, the encyclopedia’s more than 600 entries will orient readers of all kinds to the people and ideas that have given shape to contemporary American conservatism. This long-awaited volume is not to be missed.
Both moments have millenarian implications, for millenarians frequently read Daniel 2 along- side Revelation 20 as a prophecy of Christ's ... Conservative millenarians like Mede had no sympathy with this kind of radicalism, ...
Author: Edward Jones
Publisher: OUP Oxford
Category: Literary Criticism
The experimental and diverse writings of John Milton's early career offer tantalizing evidence of a precocious and steadily ripening author. Traditionally scholars have looked to Poems 1645 for evidence of his development as a poet and its bearing upon his career as a prose writer for over two decades, but such an approach has sometimes obscured and more often ignored the unique accomplishment of Milton's early career by characterizing his juvenilia as self-conscious writing designed to chronicle artistic progression. Young Milton seeks to fill a scholarly void regarding Milton's early Latin and English writing (there has been no volume exclusively focused on his writing of the 1620s, 1630s, and the first years of the 1640s). For the most part the essays in this collection reject the idea of a linear development in favor of achievement of various kinds, unequal in merit, and not predicated upon maturation over time. Such maturity indeed may occur, but the early writing of Milton results from a wide variety of occasions-religious holidays; family celebrations; grammar school exercises and university requirements; the deaths of family members, ministers, university officials, and personal friends; aristocratic celebrations and commissions. This occasionality challenges the argument for the young author's uniform progress. The writings explored include Lycidas, one of the most celebrated elegies ever written in English, and The Passion, an unfinished poem declared by its author to involve a subject beyond his grasp.
This seemingly small event split conservative intellectuals and launched Gottfried's career as a paleoconservative. ... While there are seeds of his key beliefs in his first book, Conservative Millenarians: The Romantic Experience in ...
Author: Mark Sedgwick
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Category: Political Science
Since the start of the twenty-first century, the political mainstream has been shifting to the right. The liberal orthodoxy that took hold in the West as a reaction to the Second World War is breaking down. In Europe, populist political parties have pulled the mainstream in their direction; in America, a series of challenges to the Republican mainstream culminated in the 2016 election of Donald Trump. In Key Thinkers of the Radical Right, sixteen expert scholars explain sixteen thinkers, providing an introduction to their life and work, a guide to their thought, and an explanation of their work's reception. The chapters focus on thinkers who are widely read across the political right in both Europe and America, such as Julius Evola, Alain de Benoist, and Richard B. Spencer. Featuring classic, modern, and emerging thinkers, this selection provides a good representation of the intellectual right and avoids making political or value judgments. In an increasingly polarized political environment, Key Thinkers of the Radical Right offers a comprehensive and unbiased introduction to the thinkers who form the foundation of the radical right.
The Struggle for an Authentic Conservatism Joseph A. Scotchie. 1997. Garret, Garet. The American Story. Chicago: Henry Regnery Co., 1955. Gottfried, Paul. Conservative Millenarians: The Romantic Experience in Bavaria.
Author: Joseph A. Scotchie
The dominant forces of American conservatism remain wedded, at all costs, to the Republican Party, but another movement, one with its roots in the pre-World War II era, has stepped forth to fill an intellectual vacuum on the right. This Old Right first rose in opposition to the New Deal, fighting both statism at home and the emergence of an American empire abroad. More recently this movement, sometimes called paleoconservatism, has provided the ideological backbone of modern populism and the opposition to globalization, with decisive effects on presidential politics. In Revolt from the Heartland, Joseph Scotchie provides an intellectual history of the Old Right, treating its main figures and defining its conflict with the traditional left-right political mainstream. As Scotchie's account makes clear, the Old Right and its descendents have articulated an arresting and powerful worldview. They include an array of learned and provocative writers, including M.E. Bradford, Russell Kirk, Richard Weaver, and Murray Rothbard, and more recently, Clyde Wilson, Thomas Fleming, Samuel Francis, and Chilton Williamson, Jr. Beginning with the movement's anti-Federalist forerunners, Scotchie traces its developments over two centuries of American history. In the realm of politics and economics, he examines the anti-imperialist stance against the Spanish-American War and the League of Nations, the split among conservatives on Cold War foreign policy, and the hostility to the socialist orientation of the New Deal. Identifying a number of social and cultural attitudes that define the Old Right, Scotchie finds the most important to be the importance of the classics, a recognition of regional cultures, the primacy of family over state, the moral case against immigration. In general, too, a Tenth Amendment approach to such recurring issues as education, abortion, and school prayer characterizes the group. As Scotchie makes clear, the Old Right and its grass-roots supporters have, and continue to be, a powerful force in modern American politics in spite of a lack of institutional support and media recognition. Revolt from the Heartland is an important study of a persisting current in American political life.
In addition, the conservative “millenarians grew more aggressive . . . the ideal of a constantly improving world in which presently peace would reign, had been shattered.”64 The war to end all wars had nearly destroyed optimism about ...
Author: Stephanie Stidham Rogers
Publisher: Lexington Books
This book examines the relationship between American Protestants and Palestine from 1842-1917. The eastward views of Palestine drew the ancient biblical past into the present for Protestants, thus bringing a sharper focus to a new frontier and inventing the idea of a Christian Holy Land.
Southcottianism and its derivatives were the most popular forms of millenarianism in Britain. ... So potent did this message appear that conservative millenarians were encouraged to produce the alternative view that the Revolution was ...
Author: Edward Royle
Publisher: A&C Black
Fully revised and updated, the third edition of this deservedly popular history book incorporates new currents in historical writing on matters such as the language of class, the position of women, and the revolution worked by the Internet and mobile technologies.
... who had close ties to the romantic movement and whom the modern historian Paul Gottfried has called “conservative millenarians,” developed a variety of futurist views and optimistic politically oriented end-time prophecies.
Author: Bernard McGinn
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing USA
"Apocalypticism has been the source of hope and courage for the oppressed, but has also given rise, on many occasions, to fanaticism and intolerance. The essays in this volume seek neither to apologize for the extravagance of apocalyptic thinkers nor to excuse the perverse actions of some of their followers. Rather, they strive to understand a powerful, perhaps even indispensable, element in the history of Western religions that has been the source of both good and evil, and still is yet today."The Editors The Continuum History of Apocalypticism is a 1-volume, select edition of the 3-vol. Encyclopedia of Apocalypticism first published in 1998. The main historical surveys that provided the spine of the Encyclopedia have been retained, while essays of a thematic nature, and a few whose subject matter is not central to the historical development, have been omitted. The work begins with 8 articles on "The Origins of Apocalypticism in the Ancient World," extending from ancient Near Eastern myth through the Old Testament to the Dead Sea Scrolls, Jesus, Paul, and the Book of Revelation. Next are 7 articles on "Apocalyptic Traditions from Late Antiquity to ca. 1800 C.E.," including early Christian theology, radical movements in the Middle Ages, and both Jewish and Islamic apocalypticism in the classic period. The final section, "Apocalypticism in the Modern Age," includes 10 articles on apocalypticism in the Americas, in Western and Eastern Europe, and, finally, in modern Judaism and modern Islam.
Grant Underwood. If premillennialists ' zeal was equal or superior to that of postmillennialists , their expectations for numerical success were not . Millenarians were “ conservative " in their views of “ the possibility of salvation .
Author: Grant Underwood
Publisher: University of Illinois Press
"The most detailed study yet of early Mormon thought about the ""end times,"" The Millenarian World of Early Mormonism shows how Mormon views of Christ's imminent second coming exerted a profound influence on Mormonism between 1830 and 1846. By exploring how early LDS interpretation of the Bible and the Book of Mormon affected, and was affected by, Mormon millennial doctrines, Grant Underwood provides the first comprehensive linkage of the history of early Mormonism and millennial thought. He also probes LDS perceptions of the institutions and values prevalent before the Civil War, reassessing Mormonism's relationship to the dominant culture and placing Mormon millennial thought in the broader context of Judeo-Christian ideas about the end of the world."