State Identity Democratization and the Democratic Deficit in the Muslim World

Abstract: The third wave of democracy had un-doubtfully escaped the MENA region.

Author: Ahmed Hossam Maati

Publisher:

ISBN:

Category: Democracy

Page:

View: 646

Abstract: The third wave of democracy had un-doubtfully escaped the MENA region. This has historically generated interest in examining what some scholars named the persistence of authoritarianism in this region. It did not escape scholarly attention that one of the common characteristics among countries of this region is that Islam is the primary religion of either the state, the majority of the population, or both. A lot of scholars attempt to address the reasons that render Islamic polities undemocratic. This research will argue that the democratic deficit in Muslim societies is not about the compatibility of Islam and democracy. I argue that some factors are important in explaining the likelihood of democracy in any given polity, regardless of the religious identity of the population. In doing so, I argue that consensus on state identity is instrumental in the development and maintenance of democracy. Consensus on state identity contributes to democratization and democratic stability on two grounds; first, I propose that lack of such consensus results in a lack of political and social cohesion. Literature on democratic consolidation and stability suggest that political and social cohesion are necessary for democracy. However, contrary to the literature's emphasis on ethnic, religious, and linguistic cleavages, I argue that it is the lack of agreement regarding state identity constitutes a social and political cleavage that obstructs democratic transition. Second, state identity is a central dimension of Statehood- a definitional attribute of modern democracy; highlighting on literature engaging with the state-democracy nexus, I emphasize the academic agreement on the centrality of the state to democracy, albeit different views regarding the causal sequence of this relation . Moreover, I show that consensus on state identity is not only a dimension of the state, but that it also affects other dimensions of Statehood. Through these effects, consensus on state identity, argues this paper, explains both, the general democratic status in developing countries, and the democratic deficit in the Muslim World. In this way, this research contributes to two different debates, attempting to forge a link between them. The first is the debate that examines democracy in the Muslim World; the second is the debate regarding factors that explain the likelihood and extent of democracy in any given polity, regardless of its religious identity. The first debate comes in light of the undemocratic color that shades most Muslim countries. The second comes in light of debates concerning the importance of cohesion and Statehood as factors that signal democracy. Accordingly, this paper argues that agreement on state identity is central to the emergence and consolidation of democracy because it constitutes social and political cohesion, and consolidates Statehood. In light of this argument, I explain authoritarianism in the Muslim World by lack of consensus on state identity and the resulting fragmentation and state deficit.

Political Islam and Democracy in the Muslim World

Paul Kubicek draws on the experiences of those countries to explore the relationship between political manifestations of Islam and democratic politics.

Author: Paul Kubicek

Publisher:

ISBN: 9781626372528

Category: Democracy

Page: 349

View: 490

"A must read on Muslim politics.... Professor Kubicek shows that the examination of Islam and democracy should not be restricted to the Middle East." --Ahmet T. Kuru, San Diego State University Belying assertions of the incompatibility of Islam and democracy, many Muslim-majority countries are now or have been democratic. Paul Kubicek draws on the experiences of those countries to explore the relationship between political manifestations of Islam and democratic politics. Kubicek¿s comparative analysis allows him to highlight the common features that create conditions amenable to democratic development in Muslim-majority countries¿and to show how actors in Muslim democracies in fact draw on concepts within Islam to contribute to democratization. Paul Kubicek is professor of political science at Oakland University. He has published extensively on issues of democratization, and he is also editor of the journal Turkish Studies.

Islam and Democracy

The United States should : ( a ) increase substantially the amount of U.S. foreign
assistance that is spent on promoting democracy in the Muslim world ; ( b )
provide governments and key interest groups in Muslim societies with incentives
to ...

Author: David R. Smock

Publisher:

ISBN:

Category: Democracy

Page: 11

View: 343


Popular Movements and Democratization in the Islamic World

Unravelling the complexities that have arisen between Islam and democracy is the principal task of Islamic scholars, and this book will undoubtedly prove a starting point for all such endeavours.

Author: Masatoshi Kisaichi

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134150601

Category: Political Science

Page: 224

View: 845

Ever since the terrorist incident of September 11th a general understanding seems to have arisen among people that the challenges posed by Islam have now acquired human and global dimensions. Popular Movements and Democratization in the Islamic World contains case studies of people’s movements in diverse areas and periods, and it seeks to develop a comparative view of Islam and democracy that goes beyond the usual stereotype of Islam being incompatible with democracy. Unravelling the complexities that have arisen between Islam and democracy is the principal task of Islamic scholars, and this book will undoubtedly prove a starting point for all such endeavours. While primarily intended for students and scholars, this timely and important text will prove of interest even to general readers with interests in Islamic studies.

Democratization in the Muslim World

Survey research shows that strong Islamic attachments do not discourage
support for democracy.17 Islamic movements have participated in elections in
many countries, tend to be moderated by playing the electoral game, and are
likely to ...

Author: Frederic Volpi

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317997379

Category: Political Science

Page: 176

View: 397

This book examines the role that political Islam plays in processes of democratization in the Muslim world, detailing the political processes that facilitate the collective learning of democratic ways of solving the practical problems of those polities. Democratization in the Muslim World represents an important contribution to the debate on democratization and political Islam that emphasises the synergetic effects and global reach of both Islamist and democratic politics. It comes to terms with the problematic relationship between Islam and democracy in the uncertain post-Cold War, post-9/11 world order by highlighting the malleability of Islamic discourses and of its institutional resources, as well as the diversity of the political strategies of incumbent regimes to remain in power. It combines key theoretical issues and country-specific studies of some of the most relevant Muslim polities of the post-Cold War and post-9/11 era. This text was previously published as a special issue of Democratization and will be of interest to students of Middle East politics, governance, democracy, and human rights.

Modernization Democracy and Islam

This book addresses the multifaceted causes of the slow progress in the Muslim world of both modernization and democratization, and suggests remedies grounded in a keen awareness of the challenges facing both Islam and the West.

Author: Shireen Hunter

Publisher: Greenwood Publishing Group

ISBN: 9780275985110

Category: Political Science

Page: 361

View: 441

This book addresses the multifaceted causes of the slow progress in the Muslim world of both modernization and democratization, and suggests remedies grounded in a keen awareness of the challenges facing both Islam and the West.

The Awakening of Muslim Democracy

In this book, Jocelyne Cesari investigates the relationship between modernization, politics, and Islam in Muslim-majority countries such as Egypt, Iraq, Pakistan, Tunisia, and Turkey - countries that were founded by secular rulers and have ...

Author: Jocelyne Cesari

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107513294

Category: Political Science

Page:

View: 273

Why and how did Islam become such a political force in so many Muslim-majority countries? In this book, Jocelyne Cesari investigates the relationship between modernization, politics, and Islam in Muslim-majority countries such as Egypt, Iraq, Pakistan, Tunisia, and Turkey - countries that were founded by secular rulers and have since undergone secularized politics. Cesari argues that nation-building processes in these states have not created liberal democracies in the Western mold, but have instead spurred the politicization of Islam by turning it into a modern national ideology. Looking closely at examples of Islamic dominance in political modernization, this study provides a unique overview of the historical and political developments from the end of World War II to the Arab Spring that have made Islam the dominant force in the construction of the modern states, and discusses Islam's impact on emerging democracies in the contemporary Middle East.

Islamist Parties and Political Normalization in the Muslim World

The book's contributors examine major cases of Islamist party evolution and participation in democratic and semidemocratic systems in Turkey, Morocco, Yemen, Indonesia, Malaysia, and Bangladesh.

Author: Quinn Mecham

Publisher: University of Pennsylvania Press

ISBN: 0812246055

Category: Political Science

Page: 240

View: 827

Since 2000, more than twenty countries around the world have held elections in which parties that espouse a political agenda based on an Islamic worldview have competed for legislative seats. Islamist Parties and Political Normalization in the Muslim World examines the impact these parties have had on the political process in two different areas of the world with large Muslim populations: the Middle East and Asia. The book's contributors examine major cases of Islamist party evolution and participation in democratic and semidemocratic systems in Turkey, Morocco, Yemen, Indonesia, Malaysia, and Bangladesh. Collectively they articulate a theoretical framework to understand the strategic behavior of Islamist parties, including the characteristics that distinguish them from other types of political parties, how they relate to other parties as potential competitors or collaborators, how ties to broader Islamist movements may affect party behavior in elections, and how participation in an electoral system can affect the behavior and ideology of an Islamist party over time. Through this framework, the contributors observe a general tendency in Islamist politics. Although Islamist parties represent diverse interests and behaviors that are tied to their particular domestic contexts, through repeated elections they often come to operate less as antiestablishment parties and more in line with the political norms of the regimes in which they compete. While a few parties have deliberately chosen to remain on the fringes of their political system, most have found significant political rewards in changing their messages and behavior to attract more centrist voters. As the impact of the Arab Spring continues to be felt, Islamist Parties and Political Normalization in the Muslim World offers a nuanced and timely perspective of Islamist politics in broader global context. Contributors: Wenling Chan, Julie Chernov Hwang, Joseph Chinyong Liow, Driss Maghraoui, Quinn Mecham, Ali Riaz, Murat Somer, Stacey Philbrick Yadav, Saloua Zerhouni.

Civil Islam

Civil Islam tells the story of Islam and democratization in Indonesia, the world's largest Muslim nation.

Author: Robert W. Hefner

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 1400823870

Category: Social Science

Page: 312

View: 557

Civil Islam tells the story of Islam and democratization in Indonesia, the world's largest Muslim nation. Challenging stereotypes of Islam as antagonistic to democracy, this study of courage and reformation in the face of state terror suggests possibilities for democracy in the Muslim world and beyond. Democratic in the early 1950s and with rich precedents for tolerance and civility, Indonesia succumbed to violence. In 1965, Muslim parties were drawn into the slaughter of half a million communists. In the aftermath of this bloodshed, a "New Order" regime came to power, suppressing democratic forces and instituting dictatorial controls that held for decades. Yet from this maelstrom of violence, repressed by the state and denounced by conservative Muslims, an Islamic democracy movement emerged, strengthened, and played a central role in the 1998 overthrow of the Soeharto regime. In 1999, Muslim leader Abdurrahman Wahid was elected President of a reformist, civilian government. In explaining how this achievement was possible, Robert Hefner emphasizes the importance of civil institutions and public civility, but argues that neither democracy nor civil society is possible without a civilized state. Against portrayals of Islam as inherently antipluralist and undemocratic, he shows that Indonesia's Islamic reform movement repudiated the goal of an Islamic state, mobilized religiously ecumenical support, promoted women's rights, and championed democratic ideals. This broadly interdisciplinary and timely work heightens our awareness of democracy's necessary pluralism, and places Indonesia at the center of our efforts to understand what makes democracy work.

Islam Secularism and Liberal Democracy

This book argues for a rethinking of democratic theory so that it incorporates the variable of religion in the development of liberal democracy.

Author: Nader Hashemi

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199886520

Category: Religion

Page: 310

View: 178

Islam's relationship to liberal-democratic politics has emerged as one of the most pressing and contentious issues in international affairs. In Islam, Secularism, and Liberal Democracy, Nader Hashemi challenges the widely held belief among social scientists that religious politics and liberal-democratic development are structurally incompatible. This book argues for a rethinking of democratic theory so that it incorporates the variable of religion in the development of liberal democracy. In the process, it proves that an indigenous theory of Muslim secularism is not only possible, but is a necessary requirement for the advancement of liberal democracy in Muslim societies.

The Muslim World Book Review

The importance of the MB in Egyptian politics and the increased interest in its role
relate to the post - 9 / 11 debate concerning democratization in the Middle East ,
and the role of US foreign policy which is viewed as promoting democracy in ...

Author:

Publisher:

ISBN:

Category: Islam

Page:

View: 859


Islam and the Challenge of Democracy

Islam and the Challenge of Democracy aims to correct this deficiency. The book engages the reader in a rich discourse on the challenges of democracy in contemporary Islam.

Author: Khaled Abou El Fadl

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 1400873207

Category: Religion

Page: 144

View: 767

The events of September 11 and the subsequent war on terrorism have provoked widespread discussion about the possibility of democracy in the Islamic world. Such topics as the meaning of jihad, the role of clerics as authoritative interpreters, and the place of human rights and toleration in Islam have become subjects of urgent public debate around the world. With few exceptions, however, this debate has proceeded in isolation from the vibrant traditions of argument within Islamic theology, philosophy, and law. Islam and the Challenge of Democracy aims to correct this deficiency. The book engages the reader in a rich discourse on the challenges of democracy in contemporary Islam. The collection begins with a lead essay by Khaled Abou El Fadl, who argues that democracy, especially a constitutional democracy that protects basic individual rights, is the form of government best suited to promoting a set of social and political values central to Islam. Because Islam is about submission to God and about each individual's responsibility to serve as His agent on Earth, Abou El Fadl argues, there is no place for the subjugation to human authority demanded by authoritarian regimes. The lead essay is followed by eleven others from internationally respected specialists in democracy and religion. They address, challenge, and engage Abou El Fadl's work. The contributors include John Esposito, Muhammad Fadel, Noah Feldman, Nader Hashemi, Bernard Haykel, Muqtedar Khan, Saba Mahmood, David Novak, William Quandt, Kevin Reinhart, and Jeremy Waldron.

Foreign Operations Export Financing and Related Programs Appropriations for Fiscal Year 2003

Fully one - eighth of the world ' s Muslim population lives as a minority in
democratic India . While recognizing this diversity , there are three principal
reasons for highlighting the importance of aiding democracy in the Muslim world .
First , there ...

Author: United States. Congress. Senate. Committee on Appropriations. Subcommittee on Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs

Publisher:

ISBN:

Category: Economic assistance, American

Page: 209

View: 388


Muslim Democracy

" With the political salience of religion rising in many countries, this book is essential reading for students of comparative politics, religion, and democratization interested in exploring the shifting boundaries between faith and ...

Author: Edward Schneier

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317401964

Category: Political Science

Page: 270

View: 561

Muslim Democracy explores the relationship between politics and religion in forty-seven Muslim-majority countries, focusing especially on those with democratic experience, such as Indonesia and Turkey, and drawing comparisons with their regional, non-Islamic counterparts. Unlike most studies of political Islam, this is a politically-focused book, more concerned with governing realties than ideology. By changing the terms of the debate from theology to politics, and including the full complement of Islamic countries, Schneier shows that the boundaries between church and state in the Islamic world are more variable and diverse than is commonly assumed. Through case studies and statistical comparisons between Muslim majority countries and their regional counterparts, Muslim Democracy shows that countries with different religions but similar histories are not markedly different in their levels of democratization. What many Islamists and western observers call "Islamic law," moreover, is more a political than a religious construct, with religion more the tool than the engine of politics. "Women who drive in Saudi Arabia," as the author says, "are not warned they will go to hell, but that they will go to jail." With the political salience of religion rising in many countries, this book is essential reading for students of comparative politics, religion, and democratization interested in exploring the shifting boundaries between faith and politics.

Democracy and Islam in Indonesia

In this volume, political scientists, religious scholars, legal theorists, and anthropologists examine Indonesia's transition compared to Chile, Spain, India, and potentially Tunisia, and democratic failures in Yugoslavia, Egypt, and Iran.

Author: Mirjam Künkler

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 0231161905

Category: History

Page: 252

View: 708

In this volume, political scientists, religious scholars, legal theorists, and anthropologists examine the theory and practice of Indonesia's democratic transition and consider whether it can serve as a model for other Muslim countries. It looks at the events of 1998, when Indonesia's military government collapsed, igniting fears that economic, religious and political conflicts would complicate any democratic transition. It shows that, despite these concerns, in every year since 2006, the world's most populous Muslim country has received high marks from international democracy-ranking organisations.

Egypt after Mubarak

Essential reading on a subject of global importance, this edition includes a new introduction by Rutherford that takes stock of the Arab Spring and the Muslim Brotherhood's victories in the 2011-2012 elections.

Author: Bruce K. Rutherford

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 1400846145

Category: Political Science

Page: 344

View: 274

Which way will Egypt go now that Husni Mubarak's authoritarian regime has been swept from power? Will it become an Islamic theocracy similar to Iran? Will it embrace Western-style liberalism and democracy? Egypt after Mubarak reveals that Egypt's secularists and Islamists may yet navigate a middle path that results in a uniquely Islamic form of liberalism and, perhaps, democracy. Bruce Rutherford draws on in-depth interviews with Egyptian judges, lawyers, Islamic activists, politicians, and businesspeople. He utilizes major court rulings, political documents of the Muslim Brotherhood, and the writings of Egypt's leading contemporary Islamic thinkers. Rutherford demonstrates that, in post-Mubarak Egypt, progress toward liberalism and democracy is likely to be slow. Essential reading on a subject of global importance, this edition includes a new introduction by Rutherford that takes stock of the Arab Spring and the Muslim Brotherhood's victories in the 2011-2012 elections.

Democratization and the Contemporary Islamic Resurgence

26 They point out that the authoritarian regimes in the Muslim world are identified
as secularist in their approach to politics and modernization . For this reason , “
the processes of democratization and Islamic resurgence have become ...

Author: Zinat Kausar

Publisher:

ISBN:

Category: Democracy

Page: 128

View: 395


Islam and Democracy

Are Islam and democracy on a collision course? Do Islamic movements seek to "hijack democracy?" How have governments in the Muslim world responded to the many challenges of Islam and democracy today?

Author: John L. Esposito

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780198026754

Category: Religion

Page: 240

View: 373

Are Islam and democracy on a collision course? Do Islamic movements seek to "hijack democracy?" How have governments in the Muslim world responded to the many challenges of Islam and democracy today? A global religious resurgence and calls for greater political participation have been major forces in the post-Cold War period. Across the Muslim world, governments and Islamic movements grapple with issues of democratization and civil society. Islam and Democracy explores the Islamic sources (beliefs and institutions) relevant to the current debate over greater political participation and democratization. Esposito and Voll use six case studies--Algeria, Egypt, Iran, Malaysia, Pakistan, and Sudan--to look at the diversity of Muslim experiences and experiments. At one end of the spectrum, Iran and Sudan represent two cases of militant, revolutionary Islam establishing political systems. In Pakistan and Malaysia, however, the new movements have been recognized and made part of the political process. Egypt and Algeria reveal the coexistence of both extremist and moderate Islamic activism and demonstrate the complex challenges confronting ruling elites. These case studies prove that despite commonalities, differing national contexts and identities give rise to a multiplicity of agendas and strategies. This broad spectrum of case studies, reflecting the multifaceted relationship of Islam and Democracy, provides important insight into the powerful forces of religious resurgence and democratization which will inevitably impact global politics in the twenty first century.

Remaking Muslim Politics

Bringing together twelve engaging essays by leading specialists focusing on individual countries, this pioneering book examines the social origins of civil-democratic Islam, its long-term prospects, its implications for the West, and its ...

Author: Robert W. Hefner

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 9781400826391

Category: Social Science

Page: 384

View: 686

There is a struggle for the hearts and minds of Muslims unfolding across the Islamic world. The conflict pits Muslims who support pluralism and democracy against others who insist such institutions are antithetical to Islam. With some 1.3 billion people worldwide professing Islam, the outcome of this contest is sure to be one of the defining political events of the twenty-first century. Bringing together twelve engaging essays by leading specialists focusing on individual countries, this pioneering book examines the social origins of civil-democratic Islam, its long-term prospects, its implications for the West, and its lessons for our understanding of religion and politics in modern times. Although depicted by its opponents as the product of political ideas "made in the West" civil-democratic Islam represents an indigenous politics that seeks to build a distinctive Islamic modernity. In countries like Turkey, Iran, Malaysia, and Indonesia, it has become a major political force. Elsewhere its influence is apparent in efforts to devise Islamic grounds for women's rights, religious tolerance, and democratic citizenship. Everywhere it has generated fierce resistance from religious conservatives. Examining this high-stakes clash, Remaking Muslim Politics breaks new ground in the comparative study of Islam and democracy. The contributors are Bahman Baktiari, Thomas Barfield, John R. Bowen, Dale F. Eickelman, Robert W. Hefner, Peter Mandaville, Augustus Richard Norton, Gwenn Okruhlik, Michael G. Peletz, Diane Singerman, Jenny B. White, and Muhammad Qasim Zaman.

Ethnic Minorities in Democratizing Muslim Countries

This book explores the ways in which democratizing Muslim countries treat their ethnic minorities’ requests of inclusiveness and autonomy.

Author: Maurizio Geri

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319755749

Category: Political Science

Page: 251

View: 263

This book explores the ways in which democratizing Muslim countries treat their ethnic minorities’ requests of inclusiveness and autonomy. The author examines the results of two important cases—the securitization of Kurds in Turkey and the “autonomization” (a new concept coined by the study) of Acehnese in Indonesia—through multiple hypotheses: the elites’ power interest, the international factors, the institutions and history of the state, and the ontological security of the country. By examining states with ethnic diversity and very little religious diversity, the research controls for the effect of religious conflict on minority inclusion, and so allows expanded generalizations and comparisons. In non-Muslim majority countries, and in so called “mature democracies,” the problem of the inclusion of old or new ethnic minorities is also crucial for the sustainability of the “never-ending” democratization processes.