Embryo Research in Pluralistic Europe

Presented here are the results of this project, ranging from a discussion of the theoretical and practical possibilities in human-embryo experimentation and its alternatives in research on adult stem cells, a comparison of the situations ...

Author: D. Solter

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3662051176

Category: Medical

Page: 436

View: 987

Recent advances in techniques and understanding in the fields of genetics, embryology and reproductive biology have opened up new ways to treat a wide range of medical problems. They range from new options for infertility treatment and pre-implantation genetic diagnosis to stem-cell-based therapies for debilitating diseases. Since all these approaches involve the manipulation of human gametes, embryos or embryonic cells, and could also permit more contentious uses, they have stimulated a controversial debate as to what aims are desirable and to what extent experiments on human embryos are morally permissible, if permissible at all. The situation is further complicated by the fact that scientific projects are increasingly realized through international co-operation and that patients are increasingly ready to seek morally contentious medical treatment wherever it is available and thus to bypass national legislation. In view of this situation the Europäische Akademie assembled a temporary interdisciplinary project group in which scientists from universities and non-university research organizations in Europe working on the relevant subjects were brought together and charged with establishing a knowledge base and providing suggestions for long-term solutions that would be acceptable for society. Presented here are the results of this project, ranging from a discussion of the theoretical and practical possibilities in human-embryo experimentation and its alternatives in research on adult stem cells, a comparison of the situations and prospects of regulation of embryo research in Europe, a survey of European public attitudes, and a philosophical analysis of the arguments and argumentative strategies used in the debate.

Embryo Research in Pluralistic Europe

Presented here are the results of this project, ranging from a discussion of the theoretical and practical possibilities in human-embryo experimentation and its alternatives in research on adult stem cells, a comparison of the situations ...

Author: Davor Solter

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783662051184

Category: Medical

Page: 436

View: 191

Recent advances in techniques and understanding in the fields of genetics, embryology and reproductive biology have opened up new ways to treat a wide range of medical problems. They range from new options for infertility treatment and pre-implantation genetic diagnosis to stem-cell-based therapies for debilitating diseases. Since all these approaches involve the manipulation of human gametes, embryos or embryonic cells, and could also permit more contentious uses, they have stimulated a controversial debate as to what aims are desirable and to what extent experiments on human embryos are morally permissible, if permissible at all. The situation is further complicated by the fact that scientific projects are increasingly realized through international co-operation and that patients are increasingly ready to seek morally contentious medical treatment wherever it is available and thus to bypass national legislation. In view of this situation the Europäische Akademie assembled a temporary interdisciplinary project group in which scientists from universities and non-university research organizations in Europe working on the relevant subjects were brought together and charged with establishing a knowledge base and providing suggestions for long-term solutions that would be acceptable for society. Presented here are the results of this project, ranging from a discussion of the theoretical and practical possibilities in human-embryo experimentation and its alternatives in research on adult stem cells, a comparison of the situations and prospects of regulation of embryo research in Europe, a survey of European public attitudes, and a philosophical analysis of the arguments and argumentative strategies used in the debate.

Legitimation ethischer Entscheidungen im Recht

Thus it is no surprise that opponents of stem cell research and/or PGD tend to say that re- search needs to be prohibited by national or, even better, ... 18 See e.g. D. Solter et al., Embryo Research in Pluralistic Europe, 2003, 78.

Author: Silja Vöneky

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3540879811

Category: Law

Page: 353

View: 507

Bei der Regelung von Rechtsfragen in der modernen Medizin und der Biotechnologie kann kaum auf rechtliche oder ethische Standards zurückgegriffen werden. Rechtsentscheidungen berühren häufig das gesellschaftliche Selbstverständnis. Zugleich stellt der wissenschaftliche Fortschritt die Effektivität dieser Verfahren auf die Probe. Die Beiträge des Buchs gehen der Frage nach, wie diese Herausforderung in nationalen Rechtsordnungen, auf der Ebene der Europäischen Union und des Völkerrechts in demokratisch oder anderweitig legitimer Weise bewältigt wird.

Radio Free Europe Research

... and "neo—hippies" have been described by the sociologist Vasil Prodanov as the embryo of a future opposition. ... to toleration of political pluralism, criticism of Marxist dogma, or challenges to the primacy of key institutions.

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Category: Communist countries

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Religious Pluralism Globalization and World Politics

As early as 1985, a majority of the church's Board for Social Responsibility had endorsed embryo research in the ... Jewish groups based in the United States, Europe, and Israel are among the most vocal supporters of stem cell research.

Author: Thomas Banchoff

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199717303

Category: Religion

Page: 360

View: 480

Globalization has spawned more active transnational religious communities, creating a powerful force in world affairs. Religious Pluralism, Globalization and World Politics, an incisive new collection of essays, explores the patterns of cooperation and conflict that mark this new religious pluralism. Shifting religious identities have encouraged interreligious dialogue and greater political engagement around global challenges including international development, conflict resolution, transitional justice, and bioethics. At the same time, interreligious competition has contributed to political conflict and running controversy over the meaning and scope of religious freedom. In this volume, leading scholars from a variety of disciplines examine how the forces of religious pluralism and globalization are playing out on the world stage.

The Oxford Handbook of Comparative Constitutional Law

Human embryonic research and the boundaries of human embryonic stem cell (hESC) research, issues central to the ... the competence of the member states, as part of EU commitments to ethical pluralism and the principle of subsidiary.

Author: Michel Rosenfeld

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191640174

Category: Law

Page: 1416

View: 830

The field of comparative constitutional law has grown immensely over the past couple of decades. Once a minor and obscure adjunct to the field of domestic constitutional law, comparative constitutional law has now moved front and centre. Driven by the global spread of democratic government and the expansion of international human rights law, the prominence and visibility of the field, among judges, politicians, and scholars has grown exponentially. Even in the United States, where domestic constitutional exclusivism has traditionally held a firm grip, use of comparative constitutional materials has become the subject of a lively and much publicized controversy among various justices of the U.S. Supreme Court. The trend towards harmonization and international borrowing has been controversial. Whereas it seems fair to assume that there ought to be great convergence among industrialized democracies over the uses and functions of commercial contracts, that seems far from the case in constitutional law. Can a parliamentary democracy be compared to a presidential one? A federal republic to a unitary one? Moreover, what about differences in ideology or national identity? Can constitutional rights deployed in a libertarian context be profitably compared to those at work in a social welfare context? Is it perilous to compare minority rights in a multi-ethnic state to those in its ethnically homogeneous counterparts? These controversies form the background to the field of comparative constitutional law, challenging not only legal scholars, but also those in other fields, such as philosophy and political theory. Providing the first single-volume, comprehensive reference resource, the 'Oxford Handbook of Comparative Constitutional Law' will be an essential road map to the field for all those working within it, or encountering it for the first time. Leading experts in the field examine the history and methodology of the discipline, the central concepts of constitutional law, constitutional processes, and institutions - from legislative reform to judicial interpretation, rights, and emerging trends.

Embryo Politics

And Bush's August 2001 stem cell compromise—federally funded stem cell research, but only with cells already derived from ... Europeans expressed incomprehension in the face of the public-private distinction in the United States, ...

Author: Thomas Banchoff

Publisher: Cornell University Press

ISBN: 9780801461071

Category: Political Science

Page: 304

View: 918

Since the first fertilization of a human egg in the laboratory in 1968, scientific and technological breakthroughs have raised ethical dilemmas and generated policy controversies on both sides of the Atlantic. Embryo, stem cell, and cloning research have provoked impassioned political debate about their religious, moral, legal, and practical implications. National governments make rules that govern the creation, destruction, and use of embryos in the laboratory—but they do so in profoundly different ways. In Embryo Politics, Thomas Banchoff provides a comprehensive overview of political struggles about embryo research during four decades in four countries—the United States, the United Kingdom, Germany, and France. Banchoff’s book, the first of its kind, demonstrates the impact of particular national histories and institutions on very different patterns of national governance. Over time, he argues, partisan debate and religious-secular polarization have come to overshadow ethical reflection and political deliberation on the moral status of the embryo and the promise of biomedical research. Only by recovering a robust and public ethical debate will we be able to govern revolutionary life-science technologies effectively and responsibly into the future.

The Future of Thinking

How would Aquinas argue the abortion issue? Will Carnap help us with the question of embryo research? Let us have Russell on pluralism, Hegel on the political ferment in Eastern Europe, Feuerbach on religious revivalism, and so on.

Author: Peter Washington *Ga*

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134906897

Category: Education

Page: 144

View: 644

Learning to think is a complex process made up of reading, writing listening, speaking and remembering textual materials. The aim of this topical book is to encourage practical educational reform in the Humanities by taking the emphasis away from the reception of texts to their production. Adapting rhetorical teaching methods, the authors encourage students to participate in the activities of thinking giving them short written and verbal exercises to develop conceptual competences and linguistics skills. It is argued that these methods can be implemented successfully across a wide number of humanities subjects and that they encourage the development of practical transferable skills, both cognitive and linguistic. The authors have used these methods successfully in class, and the book includes sample exercises, the initial results, and feedback from their students.

Contested Cells Global Perspectives On The Stem Cell Debate

... but which reflected inherent regulatory pluralism by remaining neutral about controversial research, stating: 'This Directive should not interfere with decisions made ... The Human Embryo, Stem Cell Research, and the European Union.

Author: Benjamin J Capps

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 1908978295

Category: Medical

Page: 516

View: 597

This book represents the coming together of a number of internationally renowned scholars from science, philosophy, law and social science. Each author presents a distinctive and critical account of the current ethical, social and jurisprudential issues concerning stem cell science: together covering both its research beginnings, and the future translation into the clinical setting. Original to this volume is an emphasis on the inter-state implications of developments in stem cell science from the perspective of a truly global collaboration of leading authors. Academics and policy-makers will find it an invaluable contribution to the socio-political and ethical discourse of stem cell science./a

Radioactive Waste

The Case of Central and Eastern European Countries, 2000 P. Janich, M. Gutmann, K. Prieß (eds) Biodiversität. ... 2003 R. Chadwick et al., Functional Foods, 2003 D. Solter et al., Embryo Research in Pluralistic Europe, 2003 M. Decker, ...

Author: Christian Streffer

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3642229255

Category: Philosophy

Page: 466

View: 193

Radioactive waste (above all highly radioactive wastes from nuclear installations) caused by research, medicine and technology must be disposed of safely. However both the strategies disputed for the disposal of radioactive waste as well as concrete proposals for choosing a location for final waste disposal are highly debatable. An appropriate disposal must conform to both complex, technical requirements and fulfill the radio-biological conditions to appropriately protect man and nature. Ethical, legal and social conditions must also be considered. An interdisciplinary team from various, relevant fields compiled the current status-quo and developed criteria and strategies, which on the one hand meet the requirements of optimal warning and prevention of risk for present and future generations, and additionally on the other hand meet the needs of what current society agrees what is expected to be allowed. This study can be understood as an advanced and continuing contribution to the corresponding scientific specialized debates, due to its interdisciplinary treatment. At the same time it serves as a fundamentally informing contribution to public and political debates, offering an easily comprehensible executive summary and precise content recommendations.

Normative Pluralism and Human Rights

... (2010) of the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe. 7 Makenzius (2013). 8 Convention on Human Rights and Biomedicine, Oviedo, 4.IV.1997 (ETS 164). Article 18 states: “(1) Where the law allows research on embryos in vitro, ...

Author: Kyriaki Topidi

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1351676490

Category: Law

Page: 284

View: 426

The complex legal situations arising from the coexistence of international law, state law, and social and religious norms in different parts of the world often include scenarios of conflict between them. These conflicting norms issued from different categories of ‘laws’ result in difficulties in describing, identifying and analysing human rights in plural environments. This volume studies how normative conflicts unfold when trapped in the aspirations of human rights and their local realizations. It reflects on how such tensions can be eased, while observing how and why they occur. The authors examine how obedience or resistance to the official law is generated through the interaction of a multiplicity of conflicting norms, interpretations and practices. Emphasis is placed on the actors involved in raising or decreasing the tension surrounding the conflict and the implications that the conflict carries, whether resolved or not, in conditions of asymmetric power movements. It is argued that legal responsiveness to state law depends on how people with different identities deal with it, narrate it and build expectations from it, bearing in mind that normative pluralism may also operate as an instrument towards the exclusion of certain communities from the public sphere. The chapters look particularly to expose the dialogue between parallel normative spheres in order for law to become more effective, while investigating the types of socio-legal variables that affect the functioning of law, leading to conflicts between rights, values and entire cultural frames.

Current Catalog

Institute for Research into Mental and Multiple Handicap . ... Primäre Neugeborenen - Reanimation see Dick , W. Prevention of embryonic , fetal , and perinatal disease / Robert L. Brent , Maureen ... V. European Society of Cardiology .

Author: National Library of Medicine (U.S.)

Publisher:

ISBN:

Category: Medicine

Page:

View: 126

First multi-year cumulation covers six years: 1965-70.

Law Technology and Society

For evidence, see Stefan Vogenauer and Stephen Weatherill, 'The European Community's Competence to Pursue the ... the referring court (the High Court of England and Wales) remarked that the broad definition of a human embryo, ...

Author: Roger Brownsword

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1351128167

Category: Law

Page: 351

View: 226

This book considers the implications of the regulatory burden being borne increasingly by technological management rather than by rules of law. If crime is controlled, if human health and safety are secured, if the environment is protected, not by rules but by measures of technological management—designed into products, processes, places and so on—what should we make of this transformation? In an era of smart regulatory technologies, how should we understand the ‘regulatory environment’, and the ‘complexion’ of its regulatory signals? How does technological management sit with the Rule of Law and with the traditional ideals of legality, legal coherence, and respect for liberty, human rights and human dignity? What is the future for the rules of criminal law, torts and contract law—are they likely to be rendered redundant? How are human informational interests to be specified and protected? Can traditional rules of law survive not only the emergent use of technological management but also a risk management mentality that pervades the collective engagement with new technologies? Even if technological management is effective, is it acceptable? Are we ready for rule by technology? Undertaking a radical examination of the disruptive effects of technology on the law and the legal mind-set, Roger Brownsword calls for a triple act of re-imagination: first, re-imagining legal rules as one element of a larger regulatory environment of which technological management is also a part; secondly, re-imagining the Rule of Law as a constraint on the arbitrary exercise of power (whether exercised through rules or through technological measures); and, thirdly, re-imagining the future of traditional rules of criminal law, tort law, and contract law.

Reprogenetics

... on embryo research in, 137; national worldview of, 178–80, 227–28; permissible activities in, 140; as pluralistic ... 191 Council of Europe Convention on Human Rights and Biomedicine, 137 Crick, Francis, 20 criminal prohibitions, ...

Author: Lori P. Knowles

Publisher: JHU Press

ISBN: 0801896851

Category: Medical

Page: 320

View: 373

Concluding with a cautionary call for increased regulation, Reprogenetics introduces fact, history, and reason into a public discussion of complex and vexing issues.

Low Dose Exposures in the Environment

The Case of Central and Eastern European Countries, 2000 Band 10: P. Janich, M. Gutmann, K. Prieß (Hrsg.) ... Functional Foods, 2003 Band 21: D. Solter et al., Embryo Research in Pluralistic Europe, 2003 Band 22: M. Decker, ...

Author: C. Streffer

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3662084228

Category: Social Science

Page: 471

View: 656

The ever-increasing release of harmful agents due to human activities have led in some areas of the world to heavy pollution. In order to protect human health and the environment, environmental standards that shall limit the release and the concentration of those toxic agents in the environment and hence the exposure to it have to be established. The related assessment and decision-making procedures have to be based on solid scientific data about the effects and mechanisms of these agents as well as on ethical, social and economic aspects. For risk evaluation, the knowledge of the dose response curve is an essential prerequisite. Dose responses without a threshold dose are most critical in this connection. Such dose responses are assumed for mutagenic and carcinogenic effects, which, therefore, dominate also the discussion in this book. In the environmentally important low dose range, risk estimation can only be achieved by extrapolation from higher doses with measurable effects. The extrapolation is accompanied with uncertainties which makes risk evaluation as well as risk communication frequently problematic. In order to ensure rational efficient and fair decisions beyond a sound scientific assessment the dialogue between disciplines, with the affected people and with the general public is necessary. In this book, the whole range of relevant and essential aspects of risk evaluation and standard setting is addressed. Starting with the ethical foundations, the sound analysis of recent scientific findings sets the frame for further reflections by theory of cognition, psychosocial sciences, and jurisprudence. The authors end up with concluding recommendations for coping with the recent problems of standard setting in the field of environmentally relevant low doses. The book is designed to a readership of scientists, legislators, administrators, and the interested public.

Taking Issue

Research Ethics : International Perspectives In recent years , bioethics has increasingly become an international area of inquiry , with major contributions being made not only in North America but also in Europe and in the Pacific Rim ...

Author: Baruch A. Brody

Publisher: Georgetown University Press

ISBN: 9781589010338

Category: Medical

Page: 293

View: 170

A pioneer in the theory of pluralistic casuistry, the idea that there are almost as many facets to moral choices as there are cases that call for choices, Baruch Brody takes issue with conventional bioethical wisdom and challenges the rigid principalism of contemporary bioethics. His views have been seen as controversial, but they are firmly held, and convincingly argued--all of which have led him to be one of the most widely discussed and highly admired bioethicists of our time. He argues for the fundamental distinction between active and passive euthanasia, for a need to reconceptualize approaches to brain death, and for the right of providers to unilaterally discontinue life support. He shows support for the waiving of the requirement of informed consent for some research, for the widespread use of animals in research, and for the use of placebos in many international clinical trials. When it comes to morality as it is practiced in medicine, Brody makes clear that the ethical issues are never as simple as black and white--that there are myriad factors and fine nuances that can and should challenge decision making as it is commonly practiced in difficult medical cases. In this collection, delving thoughtfully and systematically into methodology, research ethics, clinical ethics, and Jewish medical ethics, he tackles thorny life-and-death questions head-on and fearlessly. He casts a light into all the corners of end-of-life decisions--a field in which he has exemplary credentials--while illuminating a new understanding of morality and ethics. The introduction outlines Brody's approach, defines the terminology used, and contrasts his ethical positions with much of the competing literature. Taking Issue will be invaluable to students and scholars in medical ethics, bioethics, and philosophy of medicine.

The Oxford Handbook of Bioethics

Department of Health (2000),Stem Cell Research: Medical Progress with Responsibility: A Report from the Chief Medical ... (2001), 'European and American Ethical Debates About Stem Cells: Common Underlying Themes and Some Significant ...

Author: Bonnie Steinbock

Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand

ISBN: 9780199273355

Category: Medical

Page: 747

View: 349

Bonnie Steinbock presents the authoritative, state-of-the-art guide to current issues in bioethics, covering 30 topics in original essays by some of the world's leading figures in the field, as well as by some newer 'up-and-comers'. Anyone who wants to know how the central debates in bioethics have developed in recent years, and where the debates are going, will want to consult this book.

Nanotechnology

... 2003 Band 21: D. Solter et al, Embryo Research in Pluralistic Europe, 2003 Band 22: M. Decker, M. Ladikas (eds) Bridges between Science, Society and Policy, 2004 Band 23: C. Streffer et al, Low Dose Exposures in the Environment, ...

Author: Harald Brune

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3540328203

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 496

View: 988

The study tackles the subject in a new and unique way: Due to the fact that the borders between classical academic disciplines disappear at the nanoscale, a truly interdisciplinary approach is chosen. A functional definition of nanotechnology is developed by the authors as basis for the further sections of the study. The most important results enable recommendations with respect to scientific progress, industrial relevance, economic potential, educational needs, potential adverse health effects and philosophical aspects of nanotechnology. The book addresses the relevant decision levels, media, and academia.

The Politics of Biotechnology in North America and Europe

The target groups of the ART policy were clearly physicians and researchers. ... that have secured the freedom of biomedical re— search with the law of May 2003 on in vitro embryo research: first, the lack of mobilization by patients as ...

Author: Montpetit, &Éric

Publisher: Lexington Books

ISBN: 0739159224

Category: Medical

Page: 304

View: 452

The Politics of Biotechnology in North America and Europe provides analysts with a perspective on policy-making in scientifically advanced countries that integrate the insights of several approaches and that display a particular sensitivity to the complexity of policy-making conjectures.

Index Medicus

REPRODUCTION Variations of lipid and fatty acid contents during the reproductive REPRODUCTIVE HISTORY Embryo ... 2002 in dairy cattle in Europe -- a modelling approach . van Arendonk metabolites and hormones , and reproduction .

Author:

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Category: Medicine

Page:

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