This approach derived from extant chemical traditions: modes of alchemical
experimentation, Robert Boyle's “sceptical” ... First, his chemistry was the result of
pedagogical process: solving problems of invention, ordering, and presentation
Author: John C. Powers
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
In Inventing Chemistry, historian John C. Powers turns his attention to Herman Boerhaave (1668–1738), a Dutch medical and chemical professor whose work reached a wide, educated audience and became the template for chemical knowledge in the eighteenth century. The primary focus of this study is Boerhaave’s educational philosophy, and Powers traces its development from Boerhaave’s early days as a student in Leiden through his publication of the Elementa chemiae in 1732. Powers reveals how Boerhaave restructured and reinterpreted various practices from diverse chemical traditions (including craft chemistry, Paracelsian medical chemistry, and alchemy), shaping them into a chemical course that conformed to the pedagogical and philosophical norms of Leiden University’s medical faculty. In doing so, Boerhaave gave his chemistry a coherent organizational structure and philosophical foundation and thus transformed an artisanal practice into an academic discipline. Inventing Chemistry is essential reading for historians of chemistry, medicine, and academic life.
Instead they developed in-house industrial research facilities or ''inventing
laboratories'' supported by large patent departments, creating the first modern
corporate research and development bureaucracy, staffed by chemists trained in
Author: Anita Kildebæk Nielsen
Publisher: Royal Society of Chemistry
The book focuses on this process and development of the European chemical societies before World War I and up to 1930.
In popular media, chemists are often portrayed as characters aimlessly throwing
together concoctions of random ingredients ... for the discovery of a chemical
reaction to result from an intentional invention process with a clearly defined
Author: Lukas J. Gooßen
Barry Trost: Transition metal catalyzed allylic alkylation.- Jeffrey W. Bode: Reinventing Amide Bond Formation.- Naoto Chatani and Mamoru Tobisu: Catalytic Transformations Involving the Cleavage of C-OMe Bonds.- Gregory L. Beutner and Scott E. Denmark: The Interplay of Invention, Observation and Discovery in the Development of Lewis Base Activation of Lewis Acids for Catalytic Enantioselective Synthesis.- David R. Stuart and Keith Fagnou: The Discovery and Development of a Palladium(II)-Catalyzed Oxidative Cross-Coupling of Two Unactivated Arenes.- Lukas Gooßen and Käthe Gooßen: Decarboxylative Cross-Coupling Reactions.- A. Stephen K. Hashmi: Gold-Catalyzed Organic Reactions.- Ben List: Developing Catalytic Asymmetric Acetalizations.- Steven M. Bischof, Brian G. Hashiguchi, Michael M. Konnick, and Roy A. Periana: The De NovoDesign of CH Bond Hydroxylation Catalysts.- Benoit Cardinal-David, Karl A. Scheidt: Carbene Catalysis: Beyond the Benzoin and Stetter Reactions.- Kenso Soai and Tsuneomi Kawasaki: Asymmetric autocatalysis of pyrimidyl alkanol.- Douglas C. Behenna and Brian M. Stoltz: Natural Products as Inspiration for Reaction Development: Catalytic Enantioselective Decarboxylative Reactions of Prochiral Enolate Equivalents. Hisashi Yamamoto: Acid Catalysis in Organic Synthesis.
In fact, many studies in the history of chemistry actually tend to pass over the
early eighteenth century entirely.17 This book ... Osiris, 29 (2014), 283–97; John
C. Powers, Inventing Chemistry: Herman Boerhaave and the Reform of the
Author: Ruben E. Verwaal
Publisher: Springer Nature
This book explores the importance of bodily fluids to the development of medical knowledge in the eighteenth century. While the historiography has focused on the role of anatomy, this study shows that the chemical analyses of bodily fluids in the Dutch Republic radically altered perceptions of the body, propelling forwards a new system of medicine. It examines the new research methods and scientific instruments available at the turn of the eighteenth century that allowed for these developments, taken forward by Herman Boerhaave and his students. Each chapter focuses on a different bodily fluid – saliva, blood, urine, milk, sweat, semen – to investigate how doctors gained new insights into physiological processes through chemical experimentation on these bodily fluids. The book reveals how physicians moved from a humoral theory of medicine to new chemical and mechanical models for understanding the body in the early modern period. In doing so, it uncovers the lives and works of an important group of scientists which grew to become a European-wide community of physicians and chemists.
5,600 Exam Prep questions and answers.
John C. Powers, Inventing chemistry: Herman Boerhaave and the reform of the
chemical arts (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2012), 1–4, 192–201. 85.
Jonathan Swift, foreword to Gulliver's travels (1726). 86. Ursula Klein, “
Author: Hjalmar Fors
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
This is a book about how the modern notion of materiality was established during the period c. 1680-1760. It studies what natural philosophers engaged in chemistry and mineralogy said about phenomena such as witchcraft, trolls and subtle matters, and relates this discourse to their innovations in matter theory. In this way it takes the debate about Enlightenment, which has mostly been confined to fields such as the history of philosophy, theology and physics, into a new arena.
TOPIC 9.1 FOUNDATIONAL UNDERSTANDING OF THE CHEMICAL ASPECTS
OF NUTRITION Among the origins of ... Source: J. C. Powers, Inventing
Chemistry, Herman Boerhaave and the Reforming of the Chemical Arts.
University of ...
Author: Richard J. Sundberg
Publisher: CRC Press
This fascinating new volume provides a comprehensive yet concise overview of the chemical aspects of some of the major innovations and changes that occurred during the 20th century, relating chemical structures and properties to real-life applications. Developed for a course taught by the author for several years at UVA, the author covers the important and consequential developments in chemistry and explains their everyday, real-life applications. These include such topics as consumer products, fossil fuel use, polymers, agriculture, food production, nutrition, explosives, and drugs. The section Molecular Biology and Its Applications includes examples of the application of biotechnology and genetic engineering.
In contrast, in the chemical view of caloric, latent heat was seen as a different
state of heat, postulated to lack the ... in the table of chemical elements in his
authoritative textbook of the new chemistry, Elements of Chemistry (1789).18 On
Author: Hasok Chang
Publisher: Oxford University Press
What is temperature, and how can we measure it correctly? These may seem like simple questions, but the most renowned scientists struggled with them throughout the 18th and 19th centuries. In Inventing Temperature, Chang examines how scientists first created thermometers; how they measured temperature beyond the reach of standard thermometers; and how they managed to assess the reliability and accuracy of these instruments without a circular reliance on the instruments themselves. In a discussion that brings together the history of science with the philosophy of science, Chang presents the simple eet challenging epistemic and technical questions about these instruments, and the complex web of abstract philosophical issues surrounding them. Chang's book shows that many items of knowledge that we take for granted now are in fact spectacular achievements, obtained only after a great deal of innovative thinking, painstaking experiments, bold conjectures, and controversy. Lurking behind these achievements are some very important philosophical questions about how and when people accept the authority of science.
To the general chemist , the situation is even more obvious . We trust that the
teachers of chemistry will not be the last to interpret the handwriting on the wall .
102 American colloid chemistry owed its institutional expansion largely to
Author: Yasu Furukawa
Polymer science is central to material and intellectual life in the 20th century. Polymer chemistry and engineering have led not only to such substances as synthetic fibers, synthetic rubber, and plastic, but also to discoveries about proteins, DNA, and other biological compounds that have revolutionized Western medicine. In Inventing Polymer Science, Yasu Furukawa explores the history of modern polymer science by tracing its emergence from macromolecular chemistry, its true beginning. Furukawa's lively book gains human interest through its focus on two central figures, Hermann Staudinger and Wallace Carothers. He examines the origins and development of their scientific work, illuminates their different styles in research and professional activities, and contrasts the peculiar institutional and social milieux in which they pursued their goals. In the process he provides us with a richly contextualized history of the emergence of macromolecular chemistry.
Introduction Analytical chemistry ( Harvey 2000 ) is the science of inventing
methods to answer two kinds of questions : ( 1 ) what molecules are present (
referred to as qualitative analysis covering structure elucidation ) and ( 2 ) how
Author: Wan-Li Xing
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
This book brings together contributions from internationally renowned experts in the biochip field. The authors present not only their latest research work, but also discuss current trends in biochip technology. Specific topics range from microarray technology and its applications to lab-on-a-chip technology.
Something should be said in regard to the nature of the combination of the
motions for producing an invention. Is it like a chemical combination where the
compound is different from any of its constitutents, or is it like a mixture where the
Author: Edward P. Thompson
... Transistors , Solid State Diodes 156 Adhesive Bonding and Miscellaneous
Chemical Manufacture 226 244 Advancing Material of Indeterminate - Length
Aeronautics 188 Brakes 14 Bridges 300 Brush , Broom and Mop Making 15
Author: Richard C. Levy
Publisher: Gale Cengage
This combination how-to guide and directory takes the reader step-by-step from the point of inspiration to the point of purchase. Written by Richard C. Levy, an inventor and lecturer who has licensed over 70 products in the US and worldwide, this sourcebook offers proven information that can help users take their ideas to the marketplace successfully. The introductory essay offers proven advice on how to patent and trademark a product and how to select a company to approach for licensing. Included are more than 35 usable forms, sample agreements and declarations needed to file for patents and copyrights.
... 2002); N. Malcolm, 'Hobbes and the European Republic of Letters', in his
Aspects ofHobbes (Oxford, 2003), pp. 457–545. J.C. Powers, Inventing Chemistry
: Herman Boerhaave and the Reform of the Chemical Arts (Chicago, Illinois, 2012
Author: Jeremy Black
Publisher: Yale University Press
Information is power. For more than five hundred years the success or failure of nations has been determined by a country’s ability to acquire knowledge and technical skill and transform them into strength and prosperity. Leading historian Jeremy Black approaches global history from a distinctive perspective, focusing on the relationship between information and society and demonstrating how the understanding and use of information have been the primary factors in the development and character of the modern age. Black suggests that the West’s ascension was a direct result of its institutions and social practices for acquiring, employing, and retaining information and the technology that was ultimately produced. His cogent and well-reasoned analysis looks at cartography and the hardware of communication, armaments and sea power, mercantilism and imperialism, science and astronomy, as well as bureaucracy and the management of information, linking the history of technology with the history of global power while providing important indicators for the future of our world.
he image of Hutchinson as a young high school boy in the laboratory perfecting
his chemical titrations before allowing himself to go out on a Sunday collecting
trip relates to much ofhis work as a scientist. Among future ecologists in both
Author: Nancy G. Slack
Publisher: Yale University Press
Slack enjoyed full access to Hutchinson's archives and conducted extensive interviews both with Hutchinson himself and with his students, colleagues, and friends. She evaluates his contributions to theoretical ecology, limnology (the study of fresh-water ecosystems), biogeochemistry, population ecology, and the creation of the new fields of systems ecology and radiation ecology, and she discusses his profound influence as a mentor. The book also looks into his personal life, which included three very different wives, a refugee baby under his care during World War II, friendships with such contemporaries as Rebecca West, Margaret Mead, and Gregory Bateson, and a host of colleagues and friends on four continents. Filled with information available nowhere else, this book draws a vibrant portrait of a giant in the discipline of twentieth-century ecology who was also a man of remarkable personal appeal. --Book Jacket.
Inventing the Routine The lack of success of the spectrometer with chemists in
the first decades of the century did not diminish Twyman ' s commitment to
popularise spectrochemical analysis , and he continued devising new tactics to
this end .
Author: Royal Society of Chemistry (Great Britain)
Publisher: Royal Society of Chemistry
This lavishly illustrated book provides a focal point for any historian of chemistry or chemist with an interest in this fascinating topic.
The chemical industries have been constantly engaged in this process , inventing
new compounds and improving old ones , creating a real dependence upon
chemical products in many ways . Despite this fact the popular perception of ...
Author: Colin Archibald Russell
Publisher: Royal Society of Chemistry
This is the first book to look critically at the whole development of industrial chemistry in the UK in the context of its effects on the environment.
We are told that Carothers , assisted by other chemists working for DuPont ,
invented nylon during a series of ... used nylon , the advertisers who promoted it ,
and the scientists and engineers who produced it , all played a part in inventing it
Author: Susan Smulyan
Publisher: University of Pennsylvania Press
Smulyan demonstrates that popular culture represented more than just "escape" during the twentieth century's formative period. Far from providing an ideology-free zone, popular products and entertainments served as an arena where producers attempt to impose notions of race, class, gender, and nationhood, and consumers react to such impositions.
2 That physiological synthesis was the convergence of descriptive anatomy with
chemistry and physiology. ... In Germany, Justus von Liebig was inventing
organic chemistry, Johannes Muller was creating neurophysiology, and his
Author: Albert R. Jonsen
Publisher: Oxford University Press
A physician says, "I have an ethical obligation never to cause the death of a patient," another responds, "My ethical obligation is to relieve pain even if the patient dies." The current argument over the role of physicians in assisting patients to die constantly refers to the ethical duties of the profession. References to the Hippocratic Oath are often heard. Many modern problems, from assisted suicide to accessible health care, raise questions about the traditional ethics of medicine and the medical profession. However, few know what the traditional ethics are and how they came into being. This book provides a brief tour of the complex story of medical ethics evolved over centuries in both Western and Eastern culture. It sets this story in the social and cultural contexts in which the work of healing was practiced and suggests that, behind the many different perceptions about the ethical duties of physicians, certain themes appear constantly, and may be relevant to modern debates. The book begins with the Hippocratic medicine of ancient Greece, moves through the Middle Ages, Renaissance and Enlightenment in Europe, and the long history of Indian 7nd Chinese medicine, ending as the problems raised modern medical science and technology challenge the settled ethics of the long tradition.
WILLIAM ACKLAND ' S SHORT AND EASY METHOD OF MAKING
DISCOVERIES AND INVENTIONS . To the Editors of “ The CHEMIST . "
GENTLEMEN , Among the “ original " communications contained in your journal
for May , I perceive a ...
It is therefore impossible to separate neatly in the Timaeus that which pertains to
cosmology and that which is dependent on other areas of knowledge :
mathematics , physics , chemistry , biology , medicine , psychology , sociology ,
Author: Luc Brisson
Publisher: SUNY Press
A parallel investigation of both Plato's Timaeusand the contemporary standard Big Bang model of the universe shows that any possible scientific knowledge of the universe is ultimately grounded in irreducible and undemonstrable propositions. These are inventions of the human mind. The scientific knowledge of the universe is entirely composed in a series of axioms and rules of inference underlying a formalized system. There is no logical relationship between the sensible perception of a world of becoming and the formalized system of axioms known as a "scientific explanation." The "irrational gap" between perception and explanation can be appraised historically and identified in three stages: Plato's Timaeus furnishes the first example of a scientific theory dealing with a realm of ideality that cannot be derived from immediate sensible perception; the Big Bang model is constituted on the basis of the purely geometrical notion of symmetry; and in the more recent Algorithmic Theory of Information, the analysis of the purely symbolic language expressing physical reality reveals the level of complexity of any given theory formulated in this language. The result is that the probability of the universe actually conforming with simple mathematics is zero. In a formal system, a theorem contains more information than can be found in the set of axioms of this system, and it remains undecidable. In Aristotle' s language, the theorems that can be proved within a theoretical model are already potentially contained in the system of axioms underlying these theorems.