Ions in Solution

In this way , with a little adaptation , we obtain a useful picture of the deposition of
a metallic ion from solution , or the converse passage of a metallic ion into
solution . In figs . 20 and 21a we studied processes involving a single polar
molecule ...

Author: John Robbins

Publisher: CUP Archive


Category: Electrochemistry


View: 534

Ions in Solution

... theories of the dissociation of salts into ions on dissolution in water and
Werner's measurements of conductivities of solutions of his complex salts, the
behaviour of simple and complex inorganic ions in solution has been intensively

Author: J Burgess

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 1782420568

Category: Science

Page: 232

View: 856

This outline of the principles and chemical interactions in inorganic solution chemistry delivers a course module in an area of considerable complexity. Problems with solutions and tutorial hints to test comprehension have been added as a feature to check readers' understanding and assist self-study. Exercises and projects are also provided to help readers deepen and extend their knowledge and understanding. Inorganic solution chemistry is treated thoroughly Emphasis is placed upon NMR, UV-VIS, IR Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and such topics as acid-base behaviour, stability constants and kinetics

Ions in Solution and Their Solvation

The book starts with an exposition of the relevant properties of ions and continues with a description of their solvation in the gas phase.

Author: Yizhak Marcus

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118889142

Category: Science

Page: 312

View: 585

The book starts with an exposition of the relevant properties of ions and continues with a description of their solvation in the gas phase. The relevant properties of prospective liquid solvents for the ions are dealt with. The process of the transfer of ions from the gas phase into a liquid where they are solvated is then taken care of. Various aspects of the solutions of the ions, such as structural and transport ones and the effects of the ions on the solvent dynamics and structure are then described. In cases where the solvent is a mixture selective solvation takes place and is discussed. The interactions of ions with one another that may lead to ion pairing and with other solutes in the solution as well as their dependence on the solvent are also dealt with. The book concludes with applications of the concepts expounded previously in fields such as electrochemistry, hydrometallurgy, separation chemistry, biophysics, and synthetic methods. The book contains a large amount of factual information in the form of extensive tables of critically examined data and illustrations of the points made throughout.

Electron Transfer Reactions of Complex Ions in Solution

Though much progress in understanding ion hydration has been made, important
questions remain to be answered, and the subject of ion hydration, let alone the
more general one of ion solution, remains a live research area. In my eflorts to ...

Author: Henry Taube

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0323161138

Category: Science

Page: 112

View: 806

Electron Transfer Reactions of Complex Ions in Solution covers the significant development of some important area of electron transfer reactions of complex ions. This four-chapter book emerged from a series of lectures at the Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn in November and December 1967. Chapter I presents research studies in cation hydration. This chapter describes principal methods for composition determination of the first coordination spheres of the aquo ions. Chapter II examines the distinction between reactions in which electron transfer takes place from one primary bond system to another. Chapter III discusses some aspects of ligand effects in electron-transfer reactions. This chapter demonstrates that differences in the behavior of systems can be expected at least in the extremes of mechanisms. Chapter IV deals with the history, principles and applications of the induced electron-transfer effect. This book is of great value to electrochemists, students, and researchers.

Ions in Solution

This outline of the principles and chemical interactions in inorganic solution chemistry delivers a course module in an area of considerable complexity.

Author: John Burgess

Publisher: Ellis Horwood


Category: Ionic solutions

Page: 191

View: 796

This outline of the principles and chemical interactions in inorganic solution chemistry delivers a course module in an area of considerable complexity.

An Introduction to Aqueous Electrolyte Solutions

Chapter 11 focused attention on methods of analysing conductance data where
the effects of non-ideality have been ignored, i.e. it has been assumed that there
are no ionic interactions. The movement of ions in solution is then a result of ...

Author: Margaret Robson Wright

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 0470842938

Category: Science

Page: 574

View: 287

An Introduction to Aqueous Electrolyte Solutions is a comprehensive coverage of solution equilibria and properties of aqueous ionic solutions. Acid/base equilibria, ion pairing, complex formation, solubilities, reversible emf?s and experimental conductance studies are all illustrated by many worked examples. Theories of non-ideality leading to expressions for activity coefficients, conductance theories and investigations of solvation are described; great care being taken to provide detailed verbal clarification of the key concepts of these theories. The theoretical development focuses on the physical aspects, with the mathematical development being fully explained. An overview of the thermodynamic background is given. Each chapter includes intended learning outcomes and worked problems and examples to encourage student understanding of this multidisciplinary subject. An invaluable text for students taking courses in chemistry and chemical engineering. This book will also be useful for biology, biochemistry and biophysics students who may be required to study electrochemistry as part of their course. A comprehensive introduction to the behaviour and properties of aqueous ionic solutions, including clear explanation and development of key concepts and theories Clear, student friendly style clarifying complex aspects which students find difficult Key developments in concepts and theory explained in a descriptive manner to encourage student understanding Includes worked problems and examples throughout

Peak Revision K C S E Chemistry

Note : ( i ) In electrolysis of acidified water ; it is acidified to increase the number
of ions in the solution or to increase its conductivity . ( ii ) Hydrochloric acid and
nitric acid are not used to acidify water because during electrolysis , incase of ...


Publisher: East African Publishers

ISBN: 9789966254566



View: 618

Inorganic Chemistry in Aqueous Solution

These examples are sufficient to form the basis of the discussion of the nature of
cations and anions in aqueous solutions . In aqueous solution , ions are
stabilized by their interaction with the solvent ; they become hydrated and this
state is ...

Author: Jack Barrett

Publisher: Royal Society of Chemistry

ISBN: 9780854044719

Category: Anorganische Chemie

Page: 184

View: 710

Inorganic Chemistry in Aqueous Solution is aimed at undergraduate chemistry students but will also be welcomed by geologists interested in this field.

Engineering Chemistry

Positive metallic ions passing into solution . M—— M + + ne ( Oxidation , i.e. , loss
of electrons ) when n electrons are left behind on the metal ; and it acquires a
negative charge . The rate of this reaction depends on : ( i ) the nature of the
metal ...

Author: Dr. Vedavalli Sivaprakasam

Publisher: Laxmi Publications

ISBN: 9788131800973


Page: 153

View: 329

Ion Channels

Real solutions are not ideal , especially at higher solute concentrations .
Solutions of ionic substances depart from the ideal condition at much lower
concentrations than do those of non - electrolytes . The reason for this is that ions
of the same ...

Author: David J. Aidley

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521498821

Category: Science

Page: 307

View: 392

Up-to-date introduction to ion channels and how they work, emphasising their molecular structure.

Ionic Transport Processes

(3.3) Obviously, when there is only one electroactive ion in solution, i.e. when the
electrode reaction involves only one ionic species in solution, eqn (3.3) becomes
I ziF . ji = (3.4) For instance, in the cathodic deposition of copper, Cu2+ (aq.)+ ...

Author: Kyösti Kontturi

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191559946

Category: Science

Page: 304

View: 391

Modelling of heterogeneous processes, such as electrochemical reactions, extraction or ion-exchange, usually requires solving the transport problem associated to the process. Since the processes at the phase boundary are described by scalar quantities and transport quantities are vectors or tensors, coupling of them can take place only via conservation of mass, charge or momentum. In this book, transport of ionic species is addressed in a versatile manner, emphasizing the mutual coupling of fluxes in particular. Treatment is based on the formalism of irreversible thermodynamics, i.e. on linear (ionic) phenomenological equations, from which the most frequently used Nernst-Planck equation is derived. Limitations and assumptions made are thoroughly discussed. The Nernst-Planck equation is applied to selected problems at the electrodes and in membranes. Mathematical derivations are presented in detail so that the reader can learn the methodology of solving transport problems. Each chapter contains a large number of exercises, some of them more demanding than others.

The Physical Basis of Biochemistry

20 Ion - Ion Interactions 20.1 Ion - Ion Interactions object is subject to the complex
array of forces now being derived , it would ... The contain a great number of ions
in solution even required partial free energy change is given by the when the ...

Author: Peter R. Bergethon

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780387982625

Category: Science

Page: 567

View: 421

The Physical Basis of Biochemistry is a rigorous, imaginative textbook that applies physical and chemical principles to understanding the bi ology of cells. The book features numerous problem sets and examples, clear illustrations, and extensive appendices that provide additional information on mathematics, physics and chemistry topics that support the text. The Physical Basis of Biochemistry is suitable for graduate and advanced undergraduate courses in physical biochemistry, biophysic al chemistry, and physical chemistry with application in the life scie nces. It will be welcomed by instructors seeking a text which combines a quantitative approach with a consistent biological perspective.

Ions in Water and Biophysical Implications

The treatment in the following deals mostly with ions in solution, though some
discussion of isolated ions is also required. In dilute solutions strong electrolytes,
such as NaCl, are those that are fully dissociated into their constituent ions,
though ...

Author: Yizhak Marcus

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9400746474

Category: Science

Page: 216

View: 487

Over the past decade, numerous books have attempted to explain ions in aqueous solutions in relation to biophysical phenomena. Ions in Water and Biophysical Implications, from Chaos to Cosmos offers a physicochemical point of view of the spread of this matter and suggests innovative solutions that will challenge the biophysics research establishment. Starting with a throughout discussion of the properties of liquid water, in particular as a structured liquid with an extensive hydrogen bonded structure, the book examines water as a solvent for gases, non-electrolytes, and electrolytes and reviews the properties, sizes and thermodynamics of isolated and aqueous ions, as well as their interactions, including those of polyelectrolytes. The effects of ions on water structure, including those on solvent dynamics and certain thermodynamic quantities, are presented. This volume investigates water surfaces with its vapour, with another liquid, and with a solid, as well as the effects of solutes, including simple ions and the water-miscible non-electrolytes. Surfaces are relevant to biomolecular and colloidal systems and the book discusses briefly surfactants, micelles and vesicles. Finally, the book concludes with a review of the various biophysical implications involving chaotropic and kosmotropic ions in homogeneous solutions and the Hofmeister series for ions concerning biomolecular and colloidal systems and some aspects of protein hydration and K+/Na+ selectivity in ion channels. Ions in Water and Biophysical Implications, from Chaos to Cosmos will appeal to physical chemists, biophysicists, biochemists, as well as to all students and researchers involved in the study of aqueous solutions.

Electrolyte Solutions

It is of great interest to attempt their separation into contributions for the separate
ions. This involves, in the case of the entropy, the fixing of the absolute entropy of
some one aqueous ion; the absolute entropies of other ions can then be ...

Author: R.A. Robinson

Publisher: Courier Corporation

ISBN: 0486422259

Category: Science

Page: 571

View: 667

Classic text deals primarily with measurement, interpretation of conductance, chemical potential, and diffusion in electrolyte solutions. Detailed theoretical interpretations, plus extensive tables of thermodynamic and transport properties. 1970 edition.

Solute Movement in the Soil root System

SOIL We noted in Chapter 1 that the concentration of ions in the soil solution is
buffered by ions adsorbed on the soil surfaces . We also show in Chapter 4 that ...

Author: Peter Hague Nye

Publisher: Univ of California Press

ISBN: 9780520034518

Category: Crops

Page: 342

View: 640


Tests for non - metal ions Table 3 summarises the tests we can use to identify
non - metal ions in solution . Several of these tests depend on precipitation
reactions . For example , the test for chloride ions relies on the fact that silver
chloride is ...

Author: John S. Holman

Publisher: Nelson Thornes

ISBN: 9780748762392

Category: Science

Page: 314

View: 975

This series builds on the Nelson Science and Nelson Balanced Science series. It was developed for those studying for a Double or Triple Award at GCSE. It includes coverage of all the major GCSE science specifications, a range of case studies and other materials to further develop ideas and evidence in science and a range of questions including actual examination questions.

Study Guide to Accompany Basics for Chemistry

Liquid and gaseous solutions are transparent (unless the solution is very
intensely colored). . 4. The components of a solution cannot be separated by
settling or fil— tration. 5. In a solution the dissolved particles are atomic,
molecular, or ionic ...

Author: Martha Mackin

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 032314652X

Category: Science

Page: 544

View: 953

Study Guide to Accompany Basics for Chemistry is an 18-chapter text designed to be used with Basics for Chemistry textbook. Each chapter contains Overview, Topical Outline, Skills, and Common Mistakes, which are all keyed to the textbook for easy cross reference. The Overview section summarizes the content of the chapter and includes a comprehensive listing of terms, a summary of general concepts, and a list of numerical exercises, while the Topical Outline provides the subtopic heads that carry the corresponding chapter and section numbers as they appear in the textbook. The Fill-in, Multiple Choice are two sets of questions that include every concept and numerical exercise introduced in the chapter and the Skills section provides developed exercises to apply the new concepts in the chapter to particular examples. The Common Mistakes section is designed to help avoid some of the errors that students make in their effort to learn chemistry, while the Practical Test section includes matching and multiple choice questions that comprehensively cover almost every concept and numerical problem in the chapter. After briefly dealing with an overview of chemistry, this book goes on exploring the concept of matter, energy, measurement, problem solving, atom, periodic table, and chemical bonding. These topics are followed by discussions on writing names and formulas of compounds; chemical formulas and the mole; chemical reactions; calculations based on equations; gases; and the properties of a liquid. The remaining chapters examine the solutions; acids; bases; salts; oxidation-reduction reactions; electrochemistry; chemical kinetics and equilibrium; and nuclear, organic, and biological chemistry. This study guide will be of great value to chemistry teachers and students.

Principles of Thermodynamics

However, because these solutions are overall electrically neutral, the escaping
tendency of ions from these solutions must result from the arrangement of the
ions in the solution. Ions can be distributed in such a way as to lower their
energies ...

Author: Myron Kaufman

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9780203909768

Category: Science

Page: 408

View: 520

Ideal for one- or two-semester courses that assume elementary knowledge of calculus, This text presents the fundamental concepts of thermodynamics and applies these to problems dealing with properties of materials, phase transformations, chemical reactions, solutions and surfaces. The author utilizes principles of statistical mechanics to illustrat

Excel With Aiims Previous Years Solved Papers

As 0.001 N solution of NH , OH is more diluted solution than 0.01 N solution , so
its conductance will be more . This is due to the fact that on dilution the same
amount of an electrolyte furnishes a large number of ions in solution and ...

Author: Dr. J. K. Juneja

Publisher: Golden Bells

ISBN: 9788179681077


Page: 508

View: 679


For dilute solutions , the activities may be replaced by the concentrations of
exchanging ions in solution , · because activity coefficients are equal to unity .
The activities of ions in an ion exchanger may also be replaced by the
concentrations if ...


Publisher: Krishna Prakashan Media




View: 238