Mechanics of Solder Alloy Interconnects

The Mechanics of Solder Alloy Interconnects is a resource to be used in developing a solder joint reliability assessment.

Author: Darrel R. Frear

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780442015053

Category: Computers

Page: 418

View: 389

The Mechanics of Solder Alloy Interconnects is a resource to be used in developing a solder joint reliability assessment. Each chapter is written to be used as a stand-alone resource for a particular aspect of materials and modeling issues. With this gained understanding, the reader in search of a solution to a solder joint reliability problem knows where in the materials and modeling communities to go for the appropriate answer.

The Mechanics of Solder Alloy Interconnects




Category: Solder and soldering

Page: 418

View: 758

Lead Free Solder Interconnect Reliability

H. Solomon, Life Prediction and Accelerated Testing, in The Mechanics of Solder Alloy Interconnects, D. Frear, H. Morgan, S. Burchett, and J. Lau, Ed., Chapman and Hall, 1994, p 199–313 57. S. Wiese, F. Feustel, and E. Meusel, ...

Author: Dongkai Shangguan

Publisher: ASM International

ISBN: 161503093X

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 292

View: 529

Micro and Opto Electronic Materials and Structures Physics Mechanics Design Reliability Packaging

M. Arra, D. Shangguan, S. Yi, H. Fockenberger, and R. Thalhammer, Development of lead-free wave soldering processes, ... D.R. Frear, S.N. Burchett, and H.S. Morgan, Introduction: the mechanics of solder alloy interconnection, ...

Author: Ephraim Suhir

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 0387329897

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 1460

View: 621

This handbook provides the most comprehensive, up-to-date and easy-to-apply information on the physics, mechanics, reliability and packaging of micro- and opto-electronic materials. It details their assemblies, structures and systems, and each chapter contains a summary of the state-of-the-art in a particular field. The book provides practical recommendations on how to apply current knowledge and technology to design and manufacture. It further describes how to operate a viable, reliable and cost-effective electronic component or photonic device, and how to make such a device into a successful commercial product.

Continuum Damage Mechanics Based Failure Prediction Methodology for 95 5Sn 3 9Ag 0 6Cu Solder Alloy Interconnects in Electronic Packaging

Author: David Michael Pierce




Page: 806

View: 807

Interconnect Technology for Three Dimensional Chip Integration

[91] D. R. Frear, The Mechanics of Solder Alloy Interconnects. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1994, p. 60 ff. [92] J. S. Kang, R. A. Gagliano, G. Ghosh, and M. E. Fine, “Isothermal Solidification of Cu/Sn Diffusion Couples to Form ...

Author: Andreas Munding

Publisher: Cuvillier Verlag

ISBN: 3736924062

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 138

View: 831

3D-integration, or vertical chip integration, is a technology that aims to shorten the interconnect path between integrated circuits and to increase the interconnect density by using through-chip micro vias. It allows a smaller ciruit footprint by chip-stacking and can combine a variety of technologies. This thesis treats the technologigal aspects of a novel 3D-integration concept, which is based on processes that follow the sequence: wafer thinning, via processing, chip stacking. The micro vias are processed from the backside and therefore do not impose routing restrictions on the front side of the circuit. As an example application, the two key elements, the micro vias and the micro joints are formed on bare silicon substrate. It is shown how an electrical interconnect path from the top to the bottom of a mechanically sound chip stack can be realized. The process of stacking employs a solder based bonding method, which results in a rigid and thermally stable connection. By solid-liquid interdiffusion (isothermal solidification) the solder filled connection zone is entirely transformed into intermetallic compounds. This results in a homogenized and rigid joint with excellent mechanical properties, suitable for step by step stack building. Further, the scaling of microjoints in such 3-dimensional chip-stacks is proposed by means of kinetic control. Therefore, phase growth in the copper-tin system in the presence of various metal barriers at the interface is evaluated. Promising results have been obtained by using layers of Ti, Ta, Ti:W or combilayers thereof in a thickness range of 20 to 50 nm. These results suggest a miniaturization potential of solder based microjoints down to the scale of 1 µm, along with the respective increase in interconnect density.

Solder Materials

D. R. Frear, S. N. Burchett, H. S. Morgan and J. H. Lau, The Mechanics of Solder Alloy Interconnects, Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, 60–61 (1994). Metals Handbook, American Society for Metals, Metals Park, OH., 1071 (1948).

Author: Lin Kwang-lung

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9813238216

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 388

View: 606

This book provides a comprehensive overview of important aspects of solder materials including solderability and soldering reaction, physical metallurgy, mechanical properties, electromigration, and reliability of solder joint. The scope of this book covers mainly, but not limited to, the important research achievements of all the subjects having been disclosed and discussed in the literatures. It is a very informative book for those who are interested in learning the material properties of solders, carrying out fundamental research, and in carrying out practical applications. This book is an important resource for the various important subjects relating to solder materials.

Area Array Interconnection Handbook

D. Frear, S. Burchett, H. Morgan and J. Lau, The Mechanics of Solder Alloy Interconnects, New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1994, pp. 60–63. H. Shaukatullah and M. A. Gaynes, “Experimental Determination of the Effect of Printed Circuit ...

Author: Karl J. Puttlitz

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461513898

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 1188

View: 974

Microelectronic packaging has been recognized as an important "enabler" for the solid state revolution in electronics which we have witnessed in the last third of the twentieth century. Packaging has provided the necessary external wiring and interconnection capability for transistors and integrated circuits while they have gone through their own spectacular revolution from discrete device to gigascale integration. At IBM we are proud to have created the initial, simple concept of flip chip with solder bump connections at a time when a better way was needed to boost the reliability and improve the manufacturability of semiconductors. The basic design which was chosen for SLT (Solid Logic Technology) in the 1960s was easily extended to integrated circuits in the '70s and VLSI in the '80s and '90s. Three I/O bumps have grown to 3000 with even more anticipated for the future. The package families have evolved from thick-film (SLT) to thin-film (metallized ceramic) to co-fired multi-layer ceramic. A later family or ceramics with matching expansivity to sili con and copper internal wiring was developed as a predecessor of the chip interconnection revolution in copper, multilevel, submicron wiring. Powerful server packages have been de veloped in which the combined chip and package copper wiring exceeds a kilometer. All of this was achieved with the constant objective of minimizing circuit delays through short, efficient interconnects.

Assembly and Reliability of Lead Free Solder Joints

McGraw-Hill, New York Lau JH (2011) Reliability of RoHS-compliant 2D and 3D IC interconnects. ... Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York Frear D, Morgan H, Burchett S, Lau JH (eds) (1994) The mechanics of solder alloy interconnects.

Author: John H. Lau

Publisher: Springer Nature

ISBN: 9811539200

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 527

View: 357

This book focuses on the assembly and reliability of lead-free solder joints. Both the principles and engineering practice are addressed, with more weight placed on the latter. This is achieved by providing in-depth studies on a number of major topics such as solder joints in conventional and advanced packaging components, commonly used lead-free materials, soldering processes, advanced specialty flux designs, characterization of lead-free solder joints, reliability testing and data analyses, design for reliability, and failure analyses for lead-free solder joints. Uniquely, the content not only addresses electronic manufacturing services (EMS) on the second-level interconnects, but also packaging assembly on the first-level interconnects and the semiconductor back-end on the 3D IC integration interconnects. Thus, the book offers an indispensable resource for the complete food chain of electronics products.

Microvias For Low Cost High Density Interconnects

With this book you will develop a practical understanding of the cost, design, materials, process, equipment, manufacturing, and reliability issues of microvia and WLCSP technologies.

Author: John H. Lau

Publisher: McGraw Hill Professional


Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 565

View: 854

State-of-the-art introduction to high-density interconnect technology The first-ever book on this hot topic, Microvias: Low Cost, High Density Interconnects gives you a thorough look at the technology thats changing the nature of printed circuit boards--and driving the mobile electronic revolution. A "must" for electronics and mechanical engineers, John Lau and Ricky Lees intensive introduction to microvia technology expertly covers all major techniques. You get important details on mechanical NC drilling, laser drilling, photo-defined, chemical and plasma etching, and conductive ink formation. You also get a survey of the work of leading companies and their products, including Canon, Compaq, Fujitsu Limited, Gore, Hitachi Chemical Co., Ibiden, IBM, JCI, JVC, K&S (X-Lam), Kyocera/JME, Matsushita, Mitsubishi, NEC, Samsung, Sheldahl, Shinko, Toshiba.

Lead Free Electronic Solders

Solder Mechanics-A State of the Art Assessment (TMS Publication, Warrendale PA, 1991) 2. J.H. Lau (ed.), Solder Joint Reliability: Theory and ... The Mechanics of Solder Alloy Interconnects (Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, NY, 1994) 4.

Author: KV Subramanian

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 0387484337

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 378

View: 892

Even though the effect of lead contamination on human health has been known for decades, very little attention has been paid to lead-based solders used in electronics until recently. This comprehensive book examines all the important issues associated with lead-free electronic solder. It collects the work of researchers recognized for their significant scientific contributions in the area.

Materials for Advanced Packaging

In: 55th ECTC, San Diego, 31 May–3 June 2005, pp 1272–1281 Frear DR, Burchett SN, Morgan HS, Lau JH (eds) (1994) The mechanics of solder alloy interconnects. Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, p 60 Song F, Ricky Lee SW (2006) ...

Author: Daniel Lu

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319450980

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 969

View: 496

Significant progress has been made in advanced packaging in recent years. Several new packaging techniques have been developed and new packaging materials have been introduced. This book provides a comprehensive overview of the recent developments in this industry, particularly in the areas of microelectronics, optoelectronics, digital health, and bio-medical applications. The book discusses established techniques, as well as emerging technologies, in order to provide readers with the most up-to-date developments in advanced packaging.

Investigations on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of the Cu Pb free Solder Joint Interfaces

J Alloys Compd. 2003;352:226–36. Yoon JW, Kim SW, Jung SB. Interfacial reaction and mechanical properties of eutectic Sn– 0.7Cu/Ni BGA solder joints during isothermal long-term aging. ... The mechanics of solder alloy interconnects.

Author: Qingke Zhang

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 366248823X

Category: Science

Page: 143

View: 305

This thesis presents a series of mechanical test methods and comprehensively investigates the deformation and damage behavior of Cu/Pb-free solder joints under different loading conditions. The fracture behavior of Pb-free joint interfaces induced by stress, deformation of solder and substrate are shown, the shear fracture strength of the Cu6Sn5 IMC is measured experimentally for the first time, and the dynamic damage process and microstructure evolution behavior of Pb-free solder joints are revealed intuitively. The thesis puts forward the argument that the local cumulative damage is the major cause of failure in solder joints. The research results provide the experimental and theoretical basis for improving the reliability of solder joints.

A Guide to Lead free Solders

3, Lake Bluff, IL: Buegler, Ltd. 9 Bulwith, R., (2003) Soldering to Gold – A Practical Guide, available on-line. ... Frear, D. R., Burchett, S.N., Morgan, H.S., Lau, J. H., (1994), The Mechanics of Solder Alloy Interconnects, ...

Author: John W. Evans

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1846283108

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 206

View: 211

The book is important because it reflects a trend, especially in microelectronics manufacture toward recyclability. Europe and Asia are moving towards legislation to ban the use of lead in solders and public demand in the US will likely have the same result. Producers of solders and manufacturers who use them will have to invent and employ suitable substitutes and A Guide to Lead-free Solders will show them how to do so.

Constrained Deformation of Materials

J. H. Lupinski and R. S. Moore (1989) Polymeric materials for electronics packaging and interconnection, ... D. R. Frear, H. Morgan, S. Burchett and J. Lau (1994) The mechanics of solder alloy interconnects, Van Nostrand Reinhold, ...

Author: Y.-L. Shen

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 144196312X

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 281

View: 559

"Constrained Deformation of Materials: Devices, Heterogeneous Structures and Thermo-Mechanical Modeling" is an in-depth look at the mechanical analyses and modeling of advanced small-scale structures and heterogeneous material systems. Mechanical deformations in thin films and miniaturized materials, commonly found in microelectronic devices and packages, MEMS, nanostructures and composite and multi-phase materials, are heavily influenced by the external or internal physical confinement. A continuum mechanics-based approach is used, together with discussions on micro-mechanisms, to treat the subject in a systematic manner under the unified theme. Readers will find valuable information on the proper application of thermo-mechanics in numerical modeling as well as in the interpretation and prediction of physical material behavior, along with many case studies. Additionally, particular attention is paid to practical engineering relevance. Thus real-life reliability issues are discussed in detail to serve the needs of researchers and engineers alike.

Reflow Soldering Processes and Troubleshooting

J. W. Morris, Jr, J. L. Freer Goldstein, and Z. Mei, ''Microstructural Influences on the Mechanical Properties of Solder'', in The Mechanics of Solder Alloy Interconnects, edited by D. Frear, H. Morgan, S. Burchett, and J. Lau, ...

Author: Ning-Cheng Lee

Publisher: Newnes

ISBN: 0750672188

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 270

View: 396

Focused on technological innovations in the field of electronics packaging and production, this book elucidates the changes in reflow soldering processes, its impact on defect mechanisms, and, accordingly, the troubleshooting techniques during these processes in a variety of board types. Geared toward electronics manufacturing process engineers, design engineers, as well as students in process engineering classes, Reflow Soldering Processes and Troubleshooting will be a strong contender in the continuing skill development market for manufacturing personnel. Written using a very practical, hands-on approach, Reflow Soldering Processes and Troubleshooting provides the means for engineers to increase their understanding of the principles of soldering, flux, and solder paste technology. The author facilitates learning about other essential topics, such as area array packages--including BGA, CSP, and FC designs, bumping technique, assembly, and rework process,--and provides an increased understanding of the reliability failure modes of soldered SMT components. With cost effectiveness foremost in mind, this book is designed to troubleshoot errors or problems before boards go into the manufacturing process, saving time and money on the front end. The author's vast expertise and knowledge ensure that coverage of topics is expertly researched, written, and organized to best meet the needs of manufacturing process engineers, students, practitioners, and anyone with a desire to learn more about reflow soldering processes. Comprehensive and indispensable, this book will prove a perfect training and reference tool that readers will find invaluable. Provides engineers the cutting-edge technology in a rapidly changing field Offers in-depth coverage of the principles of soldering, flux, solder paste technology, area array packages--including BGA, CSP, and FC designs, bumping technique, assembly, and the rework process

High Temperature Electronics

Edelstein , D. C. Advantages of Copper Interconnects , Proc . ... Frear , D. R. , Burchett , S. N. , Morgan , H. S. , and Lau , J. H. The Mechanics of Solder Alloy Interconnections , Van Nostrand Reinhold , New York , NY , ( 1994 ) ...

Author: F. Patrick McCluskey

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9780849396236

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 352

View: 504

The development of electronics that can operate at high temperatures has been identified as a critical technology for the next century. Increasingly, engineers will be called upon to design avionics, automotive, and geophysical electronic systems requiring components and packaging reliable to 200 °C and beyond. Until now, however, they have had no single resource on high temperature electronics to assist them. Such a resource is critically needed, since the design and manufacture of electronic components have now made it possible to design electronic systems that will operate reliably above the traditional temperature limit of 125 °C. However, successful system development efforts hinge on a firm understanding of the fundamentals of semiconductor physics and device processing, materials selection, package design, and thermal management, together with a knowledge of the intended application environments. High Temperature Electronics brings together this essential information and presents it for the first time in a unified way. Packaging and device engineers and technologists will find this book required reading for its coverage of the techniques and tradeoffs involved in materials selection, design, and thermal management and for its presentation of best design practices using actual fielded systems as examples. In addition, professors and students will find this book suitable for graduate-level courses because of its detailed level of explanation and its coverage of fundamental scientific concepts. Experts from the field of high temperature electronics have contributed to nine chapters covering topics ranging from semiconductor device selection to testing and final assembly.

Materials and Processes

Intermetallic growth rate and mechanical behaviour of low and high melting temperature solder alloys. Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A,25, 1509–1523. Frear, D. R., et al. (1993). The mechanics of solder alloy interconnects.

Author: Barrie D. Dunn

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319233629

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 667

View: 442

The objective of this book is to assist scientists and engineers select the ideal material or manufacturing process for particular applications; these could cover a wide range of fields, from light-weight structures to electronic hardware. The book will help in problem solving as it also presents more than 100 case studies and failure investigations from the space sector that can, by analogy, be applied to other industries. Difficult-to-find material data is included for reference. The sciences of metallic (primarily) and organic materials presented throughout the book demonstrate how they can be applied as an integral part of spacecraft product assurance schemes, which involve quality, material and processes evaluations, and the selection of mechanical and component parts. In this successor edition, which has been revised and updated, engineering problems associated with critical spacecraft hardware and the space environment are highlighted by over 500 illustrations including micrographs and fractographs. Space hardware captured by astronauts and returned to Earth from long durations in space are examined. Information detailed in the Handbook is applicable to general terrestrial applications including consumer electronics as well as high reliability systems associated with aeronautics, medical equipment and ground transportation. This Handbook is also directed to those involved in maximizing the relia bility of new materials and processes for space technology and space engineering. It will be invaluable to engineers concerned with the construction of advanced structures or mechanical and electronic sub-systems.

Design Reliability of Solders and Solder Interconnections

W. J. Boettinger , C. A. Handwerker , and U. R. Kattner , in The Mechanics of Solder Alloy : Wetting & Spreading , ed . F. G. Yost , F. M. Hosking and D. R. Frear , Van Nostrand Reinhold , New York , NY , 1993 ) 103-139 . 8.

Author: Rao K. Mahidhara

Publisher: Tms


Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 448

View: 282

The reliability of solders and solder joints is an important factor in the durability and design of electronic packages. This volume addresses issues of reliability such as microstructural stability in service, creep, fatigue, creep/fatigue interactions, and thermomechanical fatigue of bulk solders and solder joints.

Modeling and Simulation for Microelectronic Packaging Assembly

He, J., Morris, W.L., Shaw, M.C., Mather, J.C. and Sridhar, N. (1998) Reliability in large area solder joint assemblies and ... Solomon, H.D. (1993) Life prediction and accelerated testing, The Mechanics of Solder Alloy Interconnects, ...

Author: Sheng Liu

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 0470828412

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 288

View: 867

Although there is increasing need for modeling and simulation in the IC package design phase, most assembly processes and various reliability tests are still based on the time consuming "test and try out" method to obtain the best solution. Modeling and simulation can easily ensure virtual Design of Experiments (DoE) to achieve the optimal solution. This has greatly reduced the cost and production time, especially for new product development. Using modeling and simulation will become increasingly necessary for future advances in 3D package development. In this book, Liu and Liu allow people in the area to learn the basic and advanced modeling and simulation skills to help solve problems they encounter. Models and simulates numerous processes in manufacturing, reliability and testing for the first time Provides the skills necessary for virtual prototyping and virtual reliability qualification and testing Demonstrates concurrent engineering and co-design approaches for advanced engineering design of microelectronic products Covers packaging and assembly for typical ICs, optoelectronics, MEMS, 2D/3D SiP, and nano interconnects Appendix and color images available for download from the book's companion website Liu and Liu have optimized the book for practicing engineers, researchers, and post-graduates in microelectronic packaging and interconnection design, assembly manufacturing, electronic reliability/quality, and semiconductor materials. Product managers, application engineers, sales and marketing staff, who need to explain to customers how the assembly manufacturing, reliability and testing will impact their products, will also find this book a critical resource. Appendix and color version of selected figures can be found at