In this review, several decades of research on peptides in cell-cell signaling are summarized, with a focus on neuropeptide discovery, biosynthesis, and function.
Author: Lloyd D. Fricker
Publisher: Biota Publishing
Neuropeptides and peptide hormones represent the largest class of chemical messengers that transmit information from one cell to another. In this review, several decades of research on peptides in cell-cell signaling are summarized, with a focus on neuropeptide discovery, biosynthesis, and function. In addition to covering the well-studied aspects of neuropeptides, emerging concepts are discussed, including classical versus non-classical neuropeptides and direct versus indirect neuropeptides. Other potential functions for peptides in intercellular and intracellular signaling are also discussed.
This series will present the various neuropeptide systems and other aspects of
neuro- peptides (such as peptide ... Steven D. Stockton Jr., and Lakshmi A. Devi
2013 Neuropeptides and Other Bioactive Peptides: From Discovery to Function ...
Author: Ivone Gomes
Publisher: Biota Publishing
Neuropeptides mediate their effects by binding and activating receptors that are responsible for converting these extracellular stimuli into intracellular responses. Most neuropeptides interact with G protein-coupled receptors that transduce the signal by activating heterotrimeric G proteins leading to alterations in second messenger systems to amplify the signal and elicit the intracellular response. In this review, we describe the general structure of G protein-coupled receptors including the information obtained from crystal structure determination that has given an insight into the activation mechanism of these receptors. In addition, we summarize the components of the signal transduction system (including G proteins, effectors and second messengers generally activated by the neuropeptide receptors). Using select examples of neuropeptide-receptor systems, we highlight the neuropeptides and corresponding receptors involved in modulation of pain and analgesia, body weight regulation, and hormonal regulation. Finally, we discuss the enzyme-linked tyrosine kinase receptors activated by growth factors and discuss the emerging concepts in targeting neuropeptide receptors for the identification of novel therapeutics targeting these systems. Table of Contents: Abbreviations / Overview of Neuropeptide Receptors / G Protein-Coupled Receptors: General Structure & Function / G Protein-Coupled Receptor Signaling / Neuropeptide Processing and Regulation / Neuropeptide Receptors / Perspectives / References
Some of them derived from ancestral neuropeptide precursors of known
mammalian peptide hormones or neuropeptides. Among many other examples,
the vasopressin/oxytocin/neurophysin prohormones  have been extensively
Author: Antonio C. M. Camargo
Publisher: Morgan & Claypool Publishers
Proteins are considered supremely important for the organization, survival, and functioning of living organisms. They were considered stable and static molecules until the early 1940s, when RudolphSchoenheimer demonstrated that proteins exist in a constant dynamic process of synthesis and degradation (proteostasis), absolutely essential for life. Since then, general and limited protein degradation became some of the most fascinating aspects of biological sciences. This book is focused on a particular aspect of protein degradation, namely, limited proteolysis, which gives rise to bioactive peptides as a result of the enzymatic action of proteinases and peptidases, which are enzymes that hydrolyze specific peptide bonds of proteins and peptides, respectively. In a broad sense, bioactive peptides are any fragment of endogenous or exogenous proteins able to elicit either physiological or pathological activities. Here, we aim at presenting to the readers that bioactive peptides are not merely produced through random processes during protein degradation, but rather through a well-organized enzymatic process that is deeply integrated in the homeostatic processes of living organisms. Table of Contents: Overview and Historical Background / Bioactive Peptides Produced by Extracellular Proteolysis / Bioactive Peptides Generated by Intracellular Proteolysis / Proteolytic Enzymes / Concluding Remarks / References / Author Biographies
neuropeptides? Data detailed in 'Hemopressin and other bioactive peptides from
cytosolic proteins: are these non-classical neuropeptides' have been presented.
According to a study from the United States, “Peptides perform many roles in ...
Nerve Tissue Proteins: Advances in Research and Application: 2011 Edition is a ScholarlyEditions™ eBook that delivers timely, authoritative, and comprehensive information about Nerve Tissue Proteins. The editors have built Nerve Tissue Proteins: Advances in Research and Application: 2011 Edition on the vast information databases of ScholarlyNews.™ You can expect the information about Nerve Tissue Proteins in this eBook to be deeper than what you can access anywhere else, as well as consistently reliable, authoritative, informed, and relevant. The content of Nerve Tissue Proteins: Advances in Research and Application: 2011 Edition has been produced by the world’s leading scientists, engineers, analysts, research institutions, and companies. All of the content is from peer-reviewed sources, and all of it is written, assembled, and edited by the editors at ScholarlyEditions™ and available exclusively from us. You now have a source you can cite with authority, confidence, and credibility. More information is available at http://www.ScholarlyEditions.com/.
Jonathan H. Wardman and Lloyd D. Fricker ABSTRACT Neuropeptides and most
other biologically active peptides are ... Some bioactive peptides require a C-
terminal amide group for biological activity; this is catalyzed from precursors ...
Author: Abba Kastin
Publisher: Academic Press
Handbook of Biologically Active Peptides, Second Edition, is the definitive, indispensable reference for peptide researchers, biochemists, cell and molecular biologists, neuroscientists, pharmacologists, and endocrinologists. Its chapters are designed to be a source for workers in the field and enable researchers working in a specific area to examine related areas outside their expertise. Peptides play a crucial role in many physiological processes, including actions as neurotransmitters, hormones, and antibiotics. Research has shown their importance in such fields as neuroscience, immunology, pharmacology, and cell biology. The second edition of Handbook of Biologically Active Peptides presents this tremendous body of knowledge in the field of biologically active peptides in one single reference. The section editors and contributors represent some of the most sophisticated and distinguished scientists working in basic sciences and clinical medicine. Presents all aspects of biologically active peptides in one resource Features more than 20 sections spanning plant, bacterial, fungal, venom, and invertebrate peptides to general peptides Includes immunological, inflammatory, cancer, vaccine, and neurotrophic peptides Discusses peptide precursors, mRNA distribution, processing, and receptors, not just pathophysiological implications
These precursors require further post - translational processing to yield the
mature , bioactive peptides . First , the ... Sometimes , the two basic residues are
separated from each other by 2 , 4 , 6 or 8 other residues , or even " less "
Author: Elizabeth P. Farley
Publisher: Nova Publishers
The explosion of research activity in the field of neuropeptides has led to the identification of numerous naturally occurring endogenous peptides which act as neurotransmitters, neuromodulators, or trophic factors, to mediate nervous system functions. Increasing numbers of non-peptide ligands of neuropeptide receptors have been developed, which act as agonists or antagonists in peptidergic systems. The scope of this new and important book includes gene regulation of peptide expression, peptide receptor subtypes, transgenic and knockout mice with mutations in genes for neuropeptides and peptide receptors, neuroanatomy, physiology, behaviour, neurotrophic factors, preclinical drug evaluation, clinical studies, and clinical trials.
73. Endocrinology, Neuroendocrinology, Neuropeptides-l E. Stark, G. B. Makara,
Zs, Acs, E. End/602i (eds) ... It has been demonstrated that ACTH, g-LPH and
other peptides are derived from the same large precursor molecule (Mains et al.,
1977; Loh, 1979). ... systems present in pituitary and brain control the formation of
bioactive peptides from these precursor molecules (Burbach and De Nied, 1980).
Author: E. Stark
Advances in Physiological Sciences, Volume 13: Endocrinology, Neuroendocrinology, Neuropeptides, Part I offers a lengthy discussion of the research, experiments, and investigations on endocrinology, neuroendocrinology, and neuropeptides. This selection, divided into five parts with 47 chapters, features the literature of able scholars who diligently conducted research on the subjects. The areas covered in their literature include discussions on hormone receptors and decoding of genetic information; biosynthesis, processing, and characterization of prehormones, prohormones, and hormones; pituitary and gastrointestinal hormone-like material in brain; behavior and hormonal balance; and extrahypothalamic structures in neuroendocrine regulation. Although the contributors put their efforts on different areas, they clearly present how endocrinology, neuroendocrinology, and neuropeptides caught the interest of physiologists and scholars. In clarifying their works, they include in this book observations, methodologies, conclusion, and recommendations. This book can best serve the interest of physiologists and other readers interested in the research on endocrinology, neuropeptides, and neuroendocrinology.
Peptides per se are difficult to use as therapeutic agents, as they are
generallyveryunstable in biological fluid environments ... residues) that are
released from nerve cells and influence the activity or function of other tissues,
including other neurons, muscles or glands. ... conclusive demonstration of a
bioactive peptide in mammals.1,2 Progress in understanding the pharmacology
of neuropeptides was ...
Author: Timothy G. Geary
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
The need to continually discover new agents for the control or treatment of invertebrate pests and pathogens is undeniable. Agriculture, both animal and plant, succeeds only to the extent that arthropod and helminth consumers, vectors and pathogens can be kept at bay. Humans and their companion animals are also plagued by invertebrate parasites. The deployment of chemical agents for these purposes inevitably elicits the selection of resistant populations of the targets of control, necessitating a regular introduction of new kinds of molecules. Experience in other areas of chemotherapy has shown that a thorough understanding of the biology of disease is an essential platform upon which to build a discovery program. Unfortunately, investment of research resources into understanding the basic physiology of invertebrates as a strategy to illuminate new molecular targets for pesticide and parasiticide discovery has been scarce, and the pace of introduction of new molecules for these indications has been slowed as a result. An exciting and so far unexploited area to explore in this regard is invertebrate neuropeptide physiology. This book was assembled to focus attention on this promising field by compiling a comprehensive review of recent research on neuropeptides in arthropods and helminths, with contributions from many of the leading laboratories working on these systems.
INTRACELLULAR PROTEOLYTIC MECHANISMS IN THE BIOSYNTHESIS OF
HORMONES AND PEPTIDE ... of Chicago Chicago, IL I. INTRODUCTION Many
small bioactive peptides and peptide neurotransmitters are derived
biosynthetically from larger precursor ... this area on a solid footing (47) and was
followed after about five years by the discovery of other precursors, first of
parathyroid hormone ...
Author: Gebhard Koch
Biochemical and Clinical Aspects of Neuropeptides: Synthesis, Processing, and Gene Structure covers the proceedings of the Fifth Conference on Macromolecular Synthesis: Biochemical and Clinical Aspects of Neuropeptides, held in Blankenese, Hamburg, Germany. This book is composed of seven parts encompassing 23 chapters, and begins with an introduction of the proteolytic mechanisms involved in proprotein processing, their intracellular localization, and their roles in generating a diverse assortment of secreted products in a variety of neuroendocrine cells. Part I describes the structure, synthesis, biochemical aspects, gene expression, and receptor selectivity of opioid peptides. Parts II and III focus on the isolation, structure, function, and genetic linkage of neuropeptides. The remaining parts explore the posttranslational processing, regulation, metabolism, biosynthesis, and gene expression of these neuropeptides, with a particular emphasis on their triggering mechanism and the control of release. Biochemists, neurologists, geneticists, and clinicians will greatly appreciate this book.
Add to the list of hormones the neuropeptides and other peptides that each have
a vital physiological function and you can appreciate the importance of structure
... In many bioactive peptides , only some of these amino acids are required .
Author: Hugh Cornell
Publisher: CRC Press
Category: Technology & Engineering
This new book meets the need for a comprehensive, up-to-date review of wheat chemistry, processing and uses. It provides the reader with extensive new information on wheat components that will be useful in better commercial utilization of wheat and the formulation of new and upgraded wheat-based food products. The book serves as a one-volume information resource for all those involved in the research, development, formulation, and evaluation of wheat-based food products. From the Authors' Preface Wheat continues to be one of the world's most important grains, especially as a food, where the unique properties of its products can be utilized to advantage. It provides an excellent example of a natural product from which a wide range of useful by-products can be made. This book discusses the components of the wheat kernel, which provide interesting examples of study of carbohydrate and protein chemistry, as well as lipids, minerals and vitamins. This book should serve as a useful reference for the cereal chemist, as well as chemists and food technologists in those industries in which by-products of flour are used, e.g., the confectionery industry in which modified starches and starch syrups are used. In addition, nutritionists, dieticians, and many kinds of researchers will find chapters of interest. Particular attention is given to particle-size determinations, an important area in food processing, and to the role of wheat proteins in gluten intolerance and wheat allergy. . . . Both the milling of wheat and flour quality are discussed in order to give the reader an idea of the distribution of the major components and the importance of proper size reduction. The book also has a chapter on wet milling of wheat flour . . . and chapters on the properties and uses of wheat starch, starch syrups, and chemically modified wheat starch. Contents Each chapter ends with a section of references. 1. The Wheat Kernel - Introduction - The Structure of the Wheat Kernel - Wheat Production - Wheat Quality - Wheat Utilization - Dietary Considerations and Food Value of Wheat - The Lipids of Wheat - The Enzymes of Wheat - The Pigments of Wheat - Comparison of Wheat with Other Cereals - Animal Feeds 2. The Milling of Wheat - Introduction - Cleaning and Conditioning - Milling Techniques - Yields of Wheat Flour and By-products - Composition of Wheat Flour and Its By-products - Flour Quality - Air Classification of Flour - Utilization of Flour and Its By-products in the Baking Industry 3. The Wet-milling of Wheat Flour - Introduction - Types of Processes - Refining of Starch by Centrifugal Methods - Particle Size Analysis of Starch - Minor Constituents - Further Purification of Commercial Wheat Starch 4. The Composition, Properties and Uses of Wheat Starch - Introduction - Composition of Wheat Starch - Properties and Reactivity of Starch - Gelatinization of Starch in Hot Water - Retrogradation of Starch Gels - Rheology of Starch Gels - Pregelatinized Starch - Industrial Starch Quality - Industrial Uses of Wheat Starch 5. Starch Syrups - Introduction - Syrups from Acidic Hydrolysis - Purification of Syrups - Syrup Additives - Syrups from Enzymic Hydrolysis - Uses of Starch Syrups - Analysis and Tests on Starch Syrups 6. Chemically Modified Wheat Starches and Their Uses - Introduction - Starches in the Paper-making Industry - Thin-boiling Starches - Starch-based Adhesives - Starch Ethers - Starch Esters - Oxidized Starches - Starch Xanthates - Cationic Starches - Modification of Starch by the Use of Additives 7. Amino Acids, Peptides and Proteins - Introduction - Amino Acids - Simple Peptides - Polypeptides/Proteins - Protein Synthesis - Reactions of Proteins - Reactions Used for Determination of Protein Structure - Isolation of Proteins - Determination of Protein Content - Determination of Protein Structure 8. Wheat Proteins - Introduction - Endosperm Proteins - Separation of Proteins - Functional Properties of Proteins and the Wheat-Gluten Complex - Uses of Dry Vital Gluten - Bioactive Components of Wheat - The Maillard Reaction - Microbiological Control of Processing - The Future for Wheat 9. Wheat on the World Wide Web (WWW) - Introduction - The Basic Requirements for the WWW - Searching for Journal and Bibliographic References; Uncover Data Base - The HTTP Protocol and Home Pages - Search Engines on the WWW - The Altavista Search: Results - The Future of Information on the WWW Index 69 Figures, 17 Tables ------------------------------------------------------------------------ The Authors Dr. Cornell received his M.Sc. from the University of Melbourne and his Ph.D. from the Royal Children's Hospital, Melbourne. His faculty positions have included those of Senior Lecturer and Associate Professor in the Department of Applied Chemistry at the Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology, and Visiting Professor at the University of Zurich, Karolinska Institute (Sweden) and the Technical University, Munich. More than forty of his papers have been published in journals, and he has made more than forty invited conference presentations. Dr. Hoveling received his Ph.D. from Flinders University of South Australia. He has been on the faculty of the Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology, in the Department of Applied Chemistry, for more than twenty-five years, first as a Lecturer and now as Senior Lecturer. Two areas of his specialization are analytical techniques and chemical information systems. ------------------------------------------------------------------------ ISBN: 1 -56676 -348 -7 Year: 1998 Number of pages: 426 Dimensions: 6 " x 9" Cover type: hardcover Price: $104.95
Other neuropeptide precursors seem to be equally efficient in generating
bioactive peptides : the 31,000 - dalton proenkephalin precursor encodes
multiple copies of met - enkephalin ( ME ) , leu - enkephalin ( LE ) , and ME -
Author: Charles B. Nemeroff
The generation of bioactive peptides from inactive precursor molecules involves
a series of highly ordered, enzyme-mediated processing events. ... way the “state
-of-the-art” technology being developed and applied in the field of peptidases
and neuropeptide processing. ... In this book, like others in the series, the authors
have been encouraged to provide chapters that reflect the latest techniques
Publisher: Academic Press
The volumes in this series include contemporary techniques significant to a particular branch of neuroscience. They are an invaluable aid to the student as well as the experienced researcher not only in developing protocols in neuroscience but in disciplines where research is becoming closely related to neuroscience. Each volume of Methods in Neurosciences contains an index, and each chapter includes references. Dr. Conn became Editor-in-Chief of the series beginning with Volume 15, so each subsequent volume could be guest-edited by an expert in that specific field. This further strengthens the depth of coverage in Methods in Neurosciences for students and researchers alike. Comprehensive protocols included for: Enzymes involved in the activation of bioactive peptidases and proteins Prohormone/neuropeptide processing pathways Enzymes involved in peptide metabolism Posttranslational processing enzymes
The C - terminal glycyl residue present in the DSK peptides is a putative
amidation site . A C - terminal amide group is characteristic of CCK and gastrin as
well as many other bioactive peptides ( Mutt 1983 ) . The identity between CCK -
Author: Thue W. Schwartz
Crossreactivity of K17F antibodies with various apelin and bioactive peptides
Peptide Sequence Crossreactivity . ... Crossreactivity of the apelin antiserum with
various N- and C - terminally truncated fragments of K17F and several other
bioactive peptides is shown in Table 1. ... P11F > R10F > G5F > K16P = K15M ,
with negligible reactivity observed for AngII , AngIII , neuropeptide Y , and AVP (
Table 1 ) .
... Q.-Y. Zhou: Orphan G Protein-Coupled Receptors and Novel Neuropeptides
DOI 10.1007/400_2007_049/Published ... novel ligands using orphan GPCR-
expressing cells have resulted in the discovery of several novel bioactive
Author: Olivier Civelli
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Over the last decade it has been shown that orphan G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) can be used as targets to discover novel neuropeptides. A dozen neuropeptides have been identified through this approach. Each of these neuropeptides has opened new doors for our understanding of fundamental physiological or behavioral responses. For example the orexins, MCH and ghrelin carry fundamental roles in regulating food intake while neuropeptide S, neuromedin S, the prokineticins and the orexins are major players in modulating sleep and circadian rhythms. The chapters of this book review the latest research in the field, most of them are written by the original discoverers of the respective novel neuropeptide. Emphasis is set not only on their discovery but also on their functional significance. Since many of these neuropeptides are part of drug discovery programs, this book impacts academic as well as pharmaceutical research.
... bioactive peptides . Sullivan ( 1979 ) first suggested one of them to be proctolin
, RYLPT , a neuropeptide known from insects ( Brown and Starratt , 1975 ; Starratt
and Brown , 1975 ) . This has been biochemically confirmed by Schwarz et al .
Author: Berta Scharrer
Publisher: Manchester University Press
The purified ligands had been termed CCHamide-1 and CCHamide-2, although
structurally identical to the peptides ... Keywords: GPCR, novel bioactive peptide,
Drosophila, CCHamide, bombesin receptor subtype 3 INTRODUCTION G ...
Author: Jae Young Seong
Publisher: Frontiers E-books
The human genome encompasses ˜ 860 G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) including 374 non-chemosensory GPCRs. Half of these latter GPCRs recognize (neuro)peptides as natural ligands. GPCRs thus play a pivotal role in neuroendocrine communication. In particular, GPCRs are involved in the neuroendocrine control of feeding behavior, reproduction, growth, hydromineral homeostasis and stress response. GPCRs are also major drug targets and hence possess a strong potential for the development of innovative pharmaceuticals. The aim of this Research Topic was to assemble a series of review articles and original research papers on neuropeptide GPCRs and their ligands that would illustrate the different facets of the studies currently conducted in this domain.
The C - terminal glycyl residue present in the DSK peptides is a putative
amidation site . A C - terminal amide group is characteristic of CCK and gastrin as
well as many other bioactive peptides ( Mutt , 1983 ) . The identity between CCK
Author: John Hughes
Category: Brain chemistry
Disruption of any event would certainly prevent normal bioactive peptide
production . However , certain processing steps may prove to be of a more
practical use than others . For example , transport of propeptides through the
Author: Julius J. Menn
Insect neurochemistry and neurobiology are active and growing areas of neuroscience research. Scientists believe that insect neuropeptides will lead to novel approaches to insect control. This new volume assesses the state of research in insect neuropeptides and identifies promising directions for future work. Its 22 chapters present information on developmental neuropeptides, and biochemistry and molecular biology. Of special interest is a chapter by Max Summers on the expression of foreign peptides in baculoviruses, which could pave the way for a method of introducing neuropeptide-regulating genes into living insects.
Phase separation of integral membrane proteins in Triton X - 114 ' , J . Biol . ...
Soluble metalloendopeptidase from rat brain : action on enkephalin - containing
peptides and other bioactive peptides ' , Endocrinology , 116 , 1418 - 1425 .
Author: G. Fink
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons Incorporated
A compendium of techniques applicable to the study of neuropeptide function. Specific topics include molecular genetic techniques in vivo and ultrastructural studies. Also discusses biochemical and electrophysiological techniques for investigating neuropeptide-receptor interactions and second messenger systems. Reviews methods for the study of whole animal behavior. Wherever possible, techniques are described on a level of detail permitting the use of this volume as a laboratory manual.