Nitrite and Nitrate in Human Health and Disease

The first section describes the biochemical analysis of nitrite and nitrate and its role in human physiology. The book then shifts to sources of human exposure of nitrite and nitrate, including environmental and dietary.

Author: Nathan S. Bryan

Publisher: Humana Press

ISBN: 3319461893

Category: Medical

Page: 349

View: 801

This fully revised and updated new edition provides a comprehensive look at nitrite and nitrate and their effect on human health and disease. The first section describes the biochemical analysis of nitrite and nitrate and its role in human physiology. The book then shifts to sources of human exposure of nitrite and nitrate, including environmental and dietary. Finally, the last section discusses nitric oxide-based therapeutics and how nitrite and nitrate biochemistry can be safely harnessed to improve human health. Each chapter provides a balanced, evidence-based view and heavily cites the most recent published literature. They follow a strict chapter format which includes keywords, key points, a conclusion highlighting major findings, and extensive references. The second edition contains new chapters on nitrite and nitrate in age medicine, nitrite and nitrate as a treatment for hypertension, and nitrite and nitrate in exercise performance. Additionally, the editors have expanded the biochemistry section to include chapters on nitrate reducing oral bacteria, nitrite mediated S-Nitrosation, epigenetics and the regulation of nitric oxide, and nitrite control of mitochondrial function. Nitrate and Nitrite in Human Health and Disease, 2e, will be of interest to health professionals, nutritionists, dieticians, biomedical scientists, and food scientists.

Nitrite and Nitrate in Human Health and Disease

This diverse collection of authors includes vascular biologists, physiologists, physicians, epidemiologists, cancer biologists, registered dieticians, chemists, and public health experts from five countries in both academia and government.

Author: Nathan S. Bryan

Publisher:

ISBN: 9781607616221

Category:

Page: 330

View: 283


Nitrite and Nitrate in Human Health and Disease

The first section describes the biochemical analysis of nitrite and nitrate and its role in human physiology. The book then shifts to sources of human exposure of nitrite and nitrate, including environmental and dietary.

Author: Nathan S. Bryan

Publisher:

ISBN: 9783319461885

Category: Clinical biochemistry

Page: 367

View: 854

This fully revised and updated new edition provides a comprehensive look at nitrite and nitrate and their effect on human health and disease. The first section describes the biochemical analysis of nitrite and nitrate and its role in human physiology. The book then shifts to sources of human exposure of nitrite and nitrate, including environmental and dietary. Finally, the last section discusses nitric oxide-based therapeutics and how nitrite and nitrate biochemistry can be safely harnessed to improve human health. Each chapter provides a balanced, evidence-based view and heavily cites the most recent published literature. They follow a strict chapter format which includes keywords, key points, a conclusion highlighting major findings, and extensive references. The second edition contains new chapters on nitrite and nitrate in age medicine, nitrite and nitrate as a treatment for hypertension, and nitrite and nitrate in exercise performance. Additionally, the editors have expanded the biochemistry section to include chapters on nitrate reducing oral bacteria, nitrite mediated S-Nitrosation, epigenetics and the regulation of nitric oxide, and nitrite control of mitochondrial function. Nitrate and Nitrite in Human Health and Disease, 2e, will be of interest to health professionals, nutritionists, dieticians, biomedical scientists, and food scientists.

Nitrates and Nitrites in Human Health and Disease

Author:

Publisher:

ISBN:

Category: Nitrates

Page: 306

View: 467


Toxicological Profile for Nitrate and Nitrite

Author:

Publisher:

ISBN:

Category: Nitrates

Page: 324

View: 609


Encyclopedia of Food Chemistry

As nitrates are naturally occurring ions, and a part of our regular diet, ... N.S., Loscalzo, J. (Eds.), Nitrite and Nitrate in Human Health and Disease.

Author:

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0128140453

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 2194

View: 915

Encyclopedia of Food Chemistry is the ideal primer for food scientists, researchers, students and young professionals who want to acquaint themselves with food chemistry. Well-organized, clearly written, and abundantly referenced, the book provides a foundation for readers to understand the principles, concepts, and techniques used in food chemistry applications. Articles are written by international experts and cover a wide range of topics, including food chemistry, food components and their interactions, properties (flavor, aroma, texture) the structure of food, functional foods, processing, storage, nanoparticles for food use, antioxidants, the Maillard and Strecker reactions, process derived contaminants, and the detection of economically-motivated food adulteration. The encyclopedia will provide readers with an introduction to specific topics within the wider context of food chemistry, as well as helping them identify the links between the various sub-topics. Offers readers a comprehensive understanding of food chemistry and the various connections between the sub-topics Provides an authoritative introduction for non-specialists and readers from undergraduate levels and upwards Meticulously organized, with articles structured logically based on the various elements of food chemistry

Nitrates and Nitrites in Food and Water

Are there alternatives? What effect does added nitrate have on total nitrate exposure of humans? . . . In this book, we have attempted to answer, or at least to give the background to, some of the questions. . . .

Author: Michael J Hill

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9780747600671

Category: Medical

Page: 196

View: 960

From the Introduction With regard to nitrate and nitrite, the perceived hazards are to the ecological balance in rivers and lakes, and to human health. Increased nitrate levels in river water lead to increased growth of algae and consequent decrease in the level of biologically available oxygen (BAO). In extreme forms, the algae form unsightly blooms on the water surface, and the BAO level falls below that necessary to support fish and other animal life. At this extreme, there is little dispute that efforts should be made to restore the ecological balance, and this is best achieved by reversing the increase in nitrate concentration that caused the problem. The health hazards are less clear, but include the risk of methaemoglobinaemia in young infants and the possible risk of gastric cancer, particularly in certain high-risk patient groups. These health risks have led to legislation to control the exposure of humans to nitrate from drinking water and as a food additive . . . What can be done about this and how can the problem be solved (if, indeed, there is a problem)? It is normal practice to add nitrate and nitrite to food as a cosmetic and as a preservative. Is this necessary? If so, how much do we need to add? Are there alternatives? What effect does added nitrate have on total nitrate exposure of humans? . . . In this book, we have attempted to answer, or at least to give the background to, some of the questions. . . .

Encyclopedia of Meat Sciences

enormous benefit of exogenous dietary nitrite and nitrate in a number of disease models in animals and even in humans. Very little can affect our health ...

Author:

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0123847346

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 1712

View: 329

The Encyclopedia of Meat Sciences, Second Edition, prepared by an international team of experts, is a reference work that covers all important aspects of meat science from stable to table. Its topics range from muscle physiology, biochemistry (including post mortem biochemistry), and processing procedures to the processes of tenderization and flavor development, various processed meat products, animal production, microbiology and food safety, and carcass composition. It also considers animal welfare, animal genetics, genomics, consumer issues, ethnic meat products, nutrition, the history of each species, cooking procedures, human health and nutrition, and waste management. Fully up-to-date, this important reference work provides an invaluable source of information for both researchers and professional food scientists. It appeals to all those wanting a one-stop guide to the meat sciences. More than 200 articles covering all areas of meat sciences Substantially revised and updated since the previous edition was published in 2004 Full color throughout

Nitrate nitrite Toxicity

Author: Kim Gehle

Publisher:

ISBN:

Category: Human beings

Page: 40

View: 562


Metabolic Pathways of Nitrate in the Eye Microbiota

Nitric oxide (NO) is a small free radical molecule with critical signaling roles.

Author: Carol Kong

Publisher:

ISBN:

Category: Nitrates

Page: 25

View: 115

Nitric oxide (NO) is a small free radical molecule with critical signaling roles. It is an endogenous vasodilator and an important mediator of vascular tone and vascular remodeling. Nitrate and nitrite are known as stable products of NO oxidation and are physiologically recycled in blood and tissues to reform NO by enzymatic and non-enzymatic pathways. Bacteria species in the human microbiome have been shown to reduce nitrate and nitrite and to produce NO under acidic conditions. In this study, we investigate the generation of nitrite and NO by bacterial species regularly identified in the eye microbiome of healthy humans, specifically Staphylococcus epidermidis and Bacillus subtilis. We measured nitrite and NO concentrations in cultures grown at oxygen and nitrate levels that approximate the conditions found in the eye. We found that Bacillus subtilis produced very low levels of NO even in the presence of millimolar nitrate concentrations. Instead, nitrite accumulated in the Staphylococcus epidermidis media after growth for 24 hours at low oxygen levels (2-6%) in a manner roughly directly proportional to the nitrate concentrations added in the media. These data indicate that during hypoxic conditions, Staphylococcus epidermidis express enzymes that efficiently reduce nitrate to nitrite and suggests that the related bacterial nitrite reduction to NO could be an important aspect of the overall nitrate/nitrite/NO metabolism. Therefore, the human microbiome can and may be a link between a nitrate rich diet and human health and disease.

Nitrate and Man

This book examines the relationship between nitrates and human health.During the last 50 years or so, nitrate has been feared as the source of the rare condition called methaemoglobinaemia, or 'blue baby syndrome', for young infants.

Author: Jean L'hirondel

Publisher: CABI

ISBN: 1845933311

Category: Science

Page: 168

View: 103

Nitrate is ubiquitous. It is present in water, soil, plants and food, and is also a normal human metabolite. The main external sources of nitrate are vegetables and drinking water. This book examines the relationship between nitrates and human health.During the last 50 years or so, nitrate has been feared as the source of the rare condition called methaemoglobinaemia, or 'blue baby syndrome', for young infants. Nitrate has also been implicated with causing cancer, through increased formation of carcinogenic compounds. Both claims are based on dubious evidence. This book sets out research results to disprove these assumptions, and goes on to explore the beneficial effects of nitrate in preventing infections, cancer and cardiovascular diseases. It is essential reading for researchers in medicine, and those in agriculture and food industries.

Nitrate nitrite Toxicity

Author: United States. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Division of Health Education and Promotion

Publisher:

ISBN:

Category:

Page: 32

View: 150


Amino Acids in Human Nutrition and Health

whether nitrite could mediate vasodilatation in vivo by infusing ... that dietary nitrate and nitrite may positively affect human health and disease.

Author: J. P. Felix D'Mello

Publisher: CABI

ISBN: 1845937988

Category: Medical

Page: 544

View: 557

Human health issues relating to amino acids are extremely broad and include metabolic disorders of amino acid metabolism as well as their presence in food and use as supplements. This book covers the biochemistry of amino acid metabolism in the context of health and disease. It discusses their use as food supplements, in clinical therapy and nutritional support and focuses on major recent developments, highlighting new areas of research that will be needed to sustain further interest in the field.

Nutrition An Approach to Good Health and Disease Management

It would be unnecessary to examine the human health consequences of each direct additive because ... Nitrites and nitrates provide safety against pathogens, ...

Author: Esperanza J. Carcache de Blanco

Publisher: Bentham Science Publishers

ISBN: 1681081083

Category: Medical

Page: 400

View: 857

This book summarizes key information required for planning and implementing a healthy diet for patients based on sound nutritional concepts. Readers will find information on the background of nutrition in disease management and nutritional regulations in the USA. The book also describes macro- and micronutrients (including minerals and vitamins) and the applications of relevant nutritional concepts to real-life situations, using well-designed simulated clinical scenarios. Additionally, factors contributing to disease as well as the link between socio-economic status, culture and nutrition are discussed. This book should serve as useful handbook for nutritionists and health care providers and medical or pharmacology students taking courses in nutritional sciences.

Magnesium in Human Health and Disease

Relation of cerebral energy metabolism and extracellular nitrite and nitrate concentrations in patients after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.

Author: Ronald Ross Watson

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1627030441

Category: Medical

Page: 309

View: 663

Magnesium is an essential mineral which is required for growth and survival of humans. Since magnesium is a mineral and not synthesizable it must be obtained through dietary foods and/or supplements. Magnesium in Human Health and Disease reviews the benefits of magnesium supplementation to reach recommended intakes as well as provides new research that suggests how reaching levels above the recommended intakes can promote health and treat various diseases. Magnesium deficiency can cause low serum potassium and calcium levels, retention of sodium, and low circulating levels of regulatory hormones. These changes in nutrients cause neurological and muscular symptoms such as tremor and muscle spasms. Further magnesium deficiency causes loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, personality changes and death from heart failure. Causes of magnesium deficiency include alcohol abuse, poorly controlled diabetes, excessive or chronic vomiting and/or diarrhea. Thus the effects of inadequate and deficient intakes or levels of magnesium is critical to health and are reviewed by the expert clinicians in this book. Magnesium in Human Health and Disease provides the most current research to support the potential benefits or lack thereof for normal and high supplementation with magnesium. Animal model research and early human trials are reviewed to document other disease states such as hypertension, cholesterol level, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease that would benefit from increased magnesium.

Natural Antioxidants in Human Health and Disease

Ascorbate can block the conversion of nitrates (abundant in food) to nitrites, and the reaction of nitrites with amines/amides to form nitrosamines (Mirvish ...

Author: Balz Frei

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 0080571689

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 588

View: 856

This book serves as a comprehensive overview of the current scientific knowledge on the health effects of dietary and supplemental antioxidants (such as vitamins C and E). Chapters integrate information from basic research and animal studies, epidemiologic studies, and clinical intervention trials. The popular media has taken great interest in antioxidants, with numerous articles emphasizing their role in preventing disease and the possible slowing of the aging process. These antioxidant vitamins may be important in preventing not only acute deficiency symptoms, but also chronic disorders such as heart disease and certain types of cancer. This book, therefore, is not only for scientists and doctors, but also for health writers, journalists, and informed lay people. The text focuses on several human conditions for which there is now good scientific evidence that oxidation is an important etiological component. Specifically, antioxidants may prevent or slow down the progression of: Cancer, Cardiovascular disease, Immune system disorders, Cataracts, Neurological disorders, Degeneration due to the aging process.

Polyphenols in Human Health and Disease

However, the concentration of nitrite/nitrate produced by neutrophils is substantially lower than that produced by macrophages and consequently it is yet ...

Author: Ronald Ross Watson

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 0128130075

Category: Medical

Page: 470

View: 476

Polyphenols: Mechanisms of Action in Human Health and Disease, Second Edition describes the mechanisms of polyphenol antioxidant activities and their use in disease prevention. Chapters highlight the anti-inflammatory activity of polyphenols on key dendritic cells, how they modulate and suppress inflammation, and how they are inactivated or activated by metabolism in the gut and circulating blood. Polyphenols have proven effective for key health benefits, including bone health, organ health, cardiac and vascular conditions, absorption and metabolism, and cancer and diseases of the immune system. They are a unique group of phytochemicals that are present in all fruits, vegetables and other plant products. This very diverse and multi-functional group of active plant compounds contain powerful antioxidant properties and exhibit remarkable chemical, biological and physiological properties, including cancer prevention and cardio-protective activities. Expands coverage on green tea, cocoa, wine, cumin and herbs Outlines their chemical properties, bioavailability and metabolomics Provides a self-teaching guide to learn the mechanisms of action and health benefits of polyphenols

Nitrate nitrite Toxicity

Author: Burton C. Kross

Publisher:

ISBN:

Category: Methemoglobinemia

Page: 23

View: 555


Nutraceuticals and Functional Foods in Human Health and Disease Prevention

Role of l-arginine in nitric oxide production in health and hypertension. ... Kim-Shapiro D. Plasma nitrate and nitrite are increased by a high-nitrate ...

Author: Debasis Bagchi

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1482237229

Category: Medical

Page: 700

View: 969

Functional foods and nutraceuticals, dietary supplements, and natural antioxidants have established their potential roles in the protection of human health against disease. Nutraceuticals and Functional Foods in Human Health and Disease Prevention examines the benefits, efficacy, and success of properly designed nutraceuticals and functional foods in human health and their possible application in disease prevention. The book demonstrates diverse disease pathophysiology and how nutraceuticals and functional food can be used to combat and prevent disease. The book discusses global food habits and trends, safety and toxicology, and how food addiction or overindulgence of food can lead to a variety of disease states. It then highlights how supplements help in disease prevention. Although a significant number of nutraceuticals and functional foods have demonstrated their efficacy, a large number of supplements are still surviving on false claims. Therefore, the editors underscore risks and benefits, and why government regulatory agencies are so critical of these nutraceutical supplements. With the global nutraceuticals market expected to reach $204.8 billion by 2017, what once seemed a very niche sector has become big business. An overview of nutraceuticals and functional foods and their application in human health, this book exhaustively covers antioxidants, functional foods, and nutraceuticals in human health and disease prevention. With contributions from experts and pioneers, the book gives insight into the role of functional foods in optimal diet and exercise.

Drinking Water Quality and Human Health

The quality of drinking water is paramount for public health. Despite important improvements in the last decades, access to safe drinking water is not universal.

Author: Patrick Levallois

Publisher: MDPI

ISBN: 3038977268

Category: Medical

Page: 374

View: 764

The quality of drinking water is paramount for public health. Despite important improvements in the last decades, access to safe drinking water is not universal. The World Health Organization estimates that almost 10% of the population in the world do not have access to improved drinking water sources. Among other diseases, waterborne infections cause diarrhea, which kills nearly one million people every year, mostly children under 5 years of age. On the other hand, chemical pollution is a concern in high-income countries and an increasing problem in low- and middle-income countries. Exposure to chemicals in drinking water may lead to a range of chronic non-communicable diseases (e.g., cancer, cardiovascular disease), adverse reproductive outcomes, and effects on children’s health (e.g., neurodevelopment), among other health effects. Although drinking water quality is regulated and monitored in many countries, increasing knowledge leads to the need for reviewing standards and guidelines on a nearly permanent basis, both for regulated and newly identified contaminants. Drinking water standards are mostly based on animal toxicity data, and more robust epidemiologic studies with accurate exposure assessment are needed. The current risk assessment paradigm dealing mostly with one-by-one chemicals dismisses the potential synergisms or interactions from exposures to mixtures of contaminants, particularly at the low-exposure range. Thus, evidence is needed on exposure and health effects of mixtures of contaminants in drinking water. Finally, water stress and water quality problems are expected to increase in the coming years due to climate change and increasing water demand by population growth, and new evidence is needed to design appropriate adaptation policies. This Special Issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (IJERPH) focuses on the current state of knowledge on the links between drinking water quality and human health.