What We Owe to Each Other

meaningful without some community of others who see the point of our striving;
and so on for other cases. The same thing is true in the case of what we owe to
each other: we have good reason to want to live with others who share our
notions ...

Author: T. M. Scanlon

Publisher: Harvard University Press

ISBN: 0674248929

Category: Philosophy

Page: 432

View: 228

How do we judge whether an action is morally right or wrong? If an action is wrong, what reason does that give us not to do it? Why should we give such reasons priority over our other concerns and values? In this book, T. M. Scanlon offers new answers to these questions, as they apply to the central part of morality that concerns what we owe to each other. According to his contractualist view, thinking about right and wrong is thinking about what we do in terms that could be justified to others and that they could not reasonably reject. He shows how the special authority of conclusions about right and wrong arises from the value of being related to others in this way, and he shows how familiar moral ideas such as fairness and responsibility can be understood through their role in this process of mutual justification and criticism. Scanlon bases his contractualism on a broader account of reasons, value, and individual well-being that challenges standard views about these crucial notions. He argues that desires do not provide us with reasons, that states of affairs are not the primary bearers of value, and that well-being is not as important for rational decision-making as it is commonly held to be. Scanlon is a pluralist about both moral and non-moral values. He argues that, taking this plurality of values into account, contractualism allows for most of the variability in moral requirements that relativists have claimed, while still accounting for the full force of our judgments of right and wrong.

On What We Owe to Each Other

In On What We Owe to Each Other, five leading moral philosophers assess various aspects of Scanlon’s moral theory as laid out in this seminal work.

Author: Philip Stratton-Lake

Publisher: Wiley-Blackwell

ISBN: 9781405119214

Category: Philosophy

Page: 152

View: 126

Five leading moral philosophers assess various aspects of T.M. Scanlon’s moral theory as laid out in his seminal work, What We Owe to Each Other. An assessment of T.M. Scanlon’s seminal work What We Owe to Each Other. Written by five leading moral philosophers. Contributes to debates initiated by Scanlon on value theory, normative ethics, and metaethics. Includes a response by T.M. Scanlon in which he clarifies and develops his views.

On What Matters

86 Parfit and I may take different views about the correct characterization of the '
individuals' whose reasons are to be considered. Although he does not say ... I
discuss this issue in What We Owe to Each Other, 202–6. 87 See e.g. Peter
Railton ...

Author: Derek Parfit

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191613452

Category: Philosophy

Page: 848

View: 835

On What Matters is a major work in moral philosophy. It is the long-awaited follow-up to Derek Parfit's 1984 book Reasons and Persons, one of the landmarks of twentieth-century philosophy. Parfit now presents a powerful new treatment of reasons, rationality, and normativity, and a critical examination of three systematic moral theories - Kant's ethics, contractualism, and consequentialism - leading to his own ground-breaking synthetic conclusion. Along the way he discusses a wide range of moral issues, such as the significance of consent, treating people as a means rather than an end, and free will and responsibility. On What Matters is already the most-discussed work in moral philosophy: its publication is likely to establish it as a modern classic which everyone working on moral philosophy will have to read, and which many others will turn to for stimulation and illumination. The second volume of Derek Parfit's magnum opus is in four parts. The first presents critiques of his work by four of the world's leading moral philosophers. The second contains his responses. The third and longest part is a self-contained monograph by Parfit on normativity. The final part comprises seven new essays by Parfit on Kant, reasons, irrationality, autonomy - and why the universe exists.

Ethics and Social Survival

Scanlon, What We Owe to Each Other, 154. Scanlon, What We Owe to Each
Other, 154. Scanlon says, “[R]especting the value of rational creatures involves . .
. also treating them in accordance with principles that they could not reasonably ...

Author: Milton Fisk

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317238176

Category: Philosophy

Page: 236

View: 448

When speaking of society’s role in ethics, one tends to think of society as regimenting people through its customs. Ethics and Social Survival rejects theories that treat ethics as having justification within itself and contends that ethics can have a grip on humans only if it serves their deep-seated need to live together. It takes a social-survival view of ethical life and its norms by arguing that ethics looks to society not for regimentation by customs, but rather for the viability of society. Fisk traces this theme through the work of various philosophers and builds a consideration of social divisions to show how rationalists fail to realize their aim of justifying ethical norms across divisions. The book also explores the relation of power and authority to ethics—without simply dismissing them as impediments—and explains how personal values such as honesty, modesty, and self-esteem still retain ethical importance. Finally, it shows that basing ethics on avoiding social collapse helps support familiar norms of liberty, justice, and democracy, and strives to connect global and local ethics.

Scanlon and Contractualism

The publication of Scanlon's What We Owe To Each Other in 1998 was a
philosophical event. The book is the most sustained and comprehensive defence
of contractual ism since John Rawls's A Theory of Justice. It represents the
culmination ...

Author: Matt Matravers

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1135755949

Category: Political Science

Page: 168

View: 193

This collection brings together essays by distinguished political philosophers which reflect on the detailed arguments of What We Owe to Each Other, and comment critically both on Scanlon's contractualism and his revised understandings of motivation and morality. The essays illustrate the uses of Scanlon's contractualism by applying it to moral and political problems and in so doing they provide an assessment of the ability of Scanlon's contractualism by applying it to other forms of ethical theory. The resulting volume makes an important and original contribution to the literature on Scanlon, on contractualism and on contemporary political philosophy.

Moral Dimensions

Even when our practices of holding people responsible for their choices can be
justified, however, the sense of arbitrariness that Smilansky describes remains
relevant, as I say in What We Owe to Each Other, 294. 62. This seems at base to
be ...

Author: T.M. Scanlon

Publisher: Harvard University Press

ISBN: 0674043146

Category: Philosophy

Page: 261

View: 686

Scanlon reframes current philosophical debates as he explores the moral permissibility of an action. Blame, he argues, is a response to the meaning of an action rather than its permissibility. This analysis leads to a novel account of the conditions of moral responsibility and to important conclusions about the ethics of blame.

Mind and Cosmos

11. 12. I leave aside the large topic of contingent normative truths, which both
realists and subjectivists about value can agree are ... See T. M. Scanlon, What
We Owe to Each Other (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1998), 56–57.

Author: Thomas Nagel

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199977194

Category: Science

Page: 144

View: 934

The modern materialist approach to life has conspicuously failed to explain such central mind-related features of our world as consciousness, intentionality, meaning, and value. This failure to account for something so integral to nature as mind, argues philosopher Thomas Nagel, is a major problem, threatening to unravel the entire naturalistic world picture, extending to biology, evolutionary theory, and cosmology. Since minds are features of biological systems that have developed through evolution, the standard materialist version of evolutionary biology is fundamentally incomplete. And the cosmological history that led to the origin of life and the coming into existence of the conditions for evolution cannot be a merely materialist history, either. An adequate conception of nature would have to explain the appearance in the universe of materially irreducible conscious minds, as such. Nagel's skepticism is not based on religious belief or on a belief in any definite alternative. In Mind and Cosmos, he does suggest that if the materialist account is wrong, then principles of a different kind may also be at work in the history of nature, principles of the growth of order that are in their logical form teleological rather than mechanistic. In spite of the great achievements of the physical sciences, reductive materialism is a world view ripe for displacement. Nagel shows that to recognize its limits is the first step in looking for alternatives, or at least in being open to their possibility.


... one or the other of these things. So in what follows, I hope you won't find my
use of such locutions misleading, since my view is that Achievements are
comprised of both parts. ... 7 What We Owe to Each Other, 118. 8 What We Owe
to Each ...

Author: Gwen Bradford

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 019102340X

Category: Philosophy

Page: 208

View: 184

From the magisterial to the mundane, achievements play a role in the best kind of human life, and many people think that they are of such importance that they are worth pursuing at the expense of serious sacrifices. Yet for all that, no philosophers have devoted more than a few short passages to discerning what makes achievements valuable, or even what makes something an achievement to begin with. Gwen Bradford presents the first systematic account of what achievements are, and what it is about them that makes them worth doing. It turns out that more things count as achievements than we might have thought, and that what makes them valuable isn't something we usually think of as good. It turns out that difficulty, perhaps surprisingly, plays a central part in characterizing achievements and their value: achievements are worth the effort. But just what does it mean for something to be difficult, and why is it valuable? A thorough analysis of the nature of difficulty is given, and ultimately, the best account of the value of achievements taps into perfectionist axiology. But not just any perfectionist theory of value will do, and in this book we see a new perfectionist theory developed that succeeds in capturing the value of achievement better than its predecessors.

Naturalism and Normativity

Scanlon, What We Owe to Each Other (Cambridge, Mass. ... Korsgaard (Sources
of Normativity, 120) argues that because all people have reasons that stem from
their common humanity, they must have moral obligations to one another.

Author: Mario De Caro

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 0231508875

Category: Philosophy

Page: 376

View: 967

Normativity concerns what we ought to think or do and the evaluations we make. For example, we say that we ought to think consistently, we ought to keep our promises, or that Mozart is a better composer than Salieri. Yet what philosophical moral can we draw from the apparent absence of normativity in the scientific image of the world? For scientific naturalists, the moral is that the normative must be reduced to the nonnormative, while for nonnaturalists, the moral is that there must be a transcendent realm of norms. Naturalism and Normativity engages with both sides of this debate. Essays explore philosophical options for understanding normativity in the space between scientific naturalism and Platonic supernaturalism. They articulate a liberal conception of philosophy that is neither reducible to the sciences nor completely independent of them yet one that maintains the right to call itself naturalism. Contributors think in new ways about the relations among the scientific worldview, our experience of norms and values, and our movements in the space of reason. Detailed discussions include the relationship between philosophy and science, physicalism and ontological pluralism, the realm of the ordinary, objectivity and subjectivity, truth and justification, and the liberal naturalisms of Donald Davidson, John Dewey, John McDowell, and Ludwig Wittgenstein.

Normativity and the Will

12 Scanlon's Contractualism T. M. Scanlon's magisterial book What We Owe to
Each Other is surely one of the most sophisticated and important works of moral
philosophy to have appeared for many years. It raises fundamental questions ...

Author: R. Jay Wallace

Publisher: Clarendon Press

ISBN: 0191536997

Category: Philosophy

Page: 356

View: 606

Normativity and the Will collects fourteen important _ papers on moral psychology and practical reason by R. Jay _ Wallace, one of the leading philosophers currently working_ in these areas. The papers explore the interpenetration of normative and _ psychological issues in a series of debates that lie at the heart of moral philosophy. Part I, Reason, Desire, and the_ Will, discusses the nexus linking normativity to motivation, including the relations between desire and reasons, the role of normative considerations in explanations of action, and_ the normative commitments involved in willing an end (such_ as the requirement to adopt the necessary means). Part II,_ Responsibility, Identification, and Emotion, looks at _ questions about the rational capacities presupposed by _ accountable agency and the psychic factors that both inhibit and enable identification with what we do. It includes an interpretation of the Nietzschean claim that ressentiment is among the sources of modern moral consciousness. Part III,_ Morality and Other Normative Domains, addresses the _ structure of moral reasons and moral motivation, and the _ relations between moral demands and other normative domains (including especially the requirements of living a _ meaningful human life). _ _ Wallace's treatments of these topics are at once _ sophisticated and engaging. Taken together, they constitute an advertisement for a distinctive way of pursuing issues in moral psychology and the theory of practical reason. The _ book articulates and defends a unified framework for _ thinking about those issues, while offering sustained _ critical discussions of other influential approaches (by _ philosophers such as Korsgaard, McDowell, Nietzsche, Raz, Scanlon, and Williams). It should be of interest to every _ serious student of moral philosophy. _

Normativity and Legitimacy

I hope you will take what follows in this spirit . In his recent book , Tim Scanlon is
dealing with three concentric and successively narrower normative domains :
reasons , values , and what we owe to each other ” ( 13 ) . ' The third of these ...

Author: Riccardo Dottori

Publisher: LIT Verlag Münster

ISBN: 9783825850173

Category: Philosophy

Page: 348

View: 297

" This volume contains the Proceedings of the Second Meeting Italian-American Philosophy, that took place in New York from 12 to 15 October 1999, together with two contributions given during the First Meeting. It is the first volume of a Yearbook for Philosophical Hermeneutics, The Dialogue, actually aiming to promote the dialogue between analytic and hermeneutic philosophy. Normativity and legitimacy are the two key concepts which have been at the base of the confrontation between the thought of the Frankfurt School and most of the American philosophy. They can offer the possibility for further discussions and developments within the fields of aesthetics, logic, and language philosophy, epistemology, ethics, philosophy of law and politics. They also represent the ground on which the two different aspects of contemporary philosophy, that one of hermeneutic dealing with historical legitimacy, and the one of analytics dealing with rational determination of norms, could together establish a productive dialogue. "

Introduction to Political Thought

Differences in distributive principles reflect different conceptions of what such
respect involves. ... What we think we owe to each other in regard to distributive
justice seems to reflect and express what we think we owe to each other more ...

Author: Peri Roberts

Publisher: Edinburgh University Press

ISBN: 0748664823

Category: Philosophy

Page: 352

View: 343

This textbook, now in itsa second edition, is designed to equip students with a basic 'conceptual toolkit' for the study of political thought: (i) a basic political vocabulary, (ii) a conceptual vocabulary and (iii) an historical vocabulary.

Consensualism in Principle

The manuscript upon which this monograph is based was originally submitted to
the University of Oxford, England, ... Scanlon published What We Owe To Each
Other, a book length presentation and defense of his contractualist account of ...

Author: Rahul Kumar

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1135724784

Category: Philosophy

Page: 178

View: 937

This book presents and argues for a suitably articulated version of consensualism as a form of Kantian moral theory with an ability to powerfully illuminate the moral intuitions to which Kantian and utilitarian theories have traditionally appealed.

The Right to Justification

Ruth Chang (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1997). Thomas
Scanlon, What We Owe to Each Other (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University
Press, 1998), 4. For more detail on the following, see chapter 1 in the present
volume. I ...

Author: Rainer Forst

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 0231519583

Category: Philosophy

Page: 384

View: 982

Contemporary philosophical pluralism recognizes the inevitability and legitimacy of multiple ethical perspectives and values, making it difficult to isolate the higher-order principles on which to base a theory of justice. Rising up to meet this challenge, Rainer Forst, a leading member of the Frankfurt School's newest generation of philosophers, conceives of an "autonomous" construction of justice founded on what he calls the basic moral right to justification. Forst begins by identifying this right from the perspective of moral philosophy. Then, through an innovative, detailed critical analysis, he ties together the central components of social and political justice freedom, democracy, equality, and toleration and joins them to the right to justification. The resulting theory treats "justificatory power" as the central question of justice, and by adopting this approach, Forst argues, we can discursively work out, or "construct," principles of justice, especially with respect to transnational justice and human rights issues. As he builds his theory, Forst engages with the work of Anglo-American philosophers such as John Rawls, Ronald Dworkin, and Amartya Sen, and critical theorists such as Jürgen Habermas, Nancy Fraser, and Axel Honneth. Straddling multiple subjects, from politics and law to social protest and philosophical conceptions of practical reason, Forst brilliantly gathers contesting claims around a single, elastic theory of justice.

Philosophical Anarchism and Political Obligation

... 82 83 Rawls, Justice as Fairness; Scanlon, What We Owe to Each Other;
Simmons, “Justification and Legitimacy,” 764–767). This is where morality and its
binding force lies, which is central to the present discussion (this rationale is
basically ...

Author: Magda Egoumenides

Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing USA

ISBN: 1441124454

Category: Political Science

Page: 288

View: 979

Political obligation refers to the moral obligation of citizens to obey the law of their state and to the existence, nature, and justification of a special relationship between a government and its constituents. This volume in the Contemporary Anarchist Studies series challenges this relationship, seeking to define and defend the position of critical philosophical anarchism against alternative approaches to the issue of justification of political institutions. The book sets out to demonstrate the value of taking an anarchist approach to the problem of political authority, looking at theories of natural duty, state justification, natural duty of justice, fairness, political institutions, and more. It argues that the anarchist perspective is in fact indispensable to theorists of political obligation and can improve our views of political authority and social relations. This accessible book builds on the works of philosophical anarchists such as John Simmons and Leslie Green, and discusses key theorists, including Rousseau, Rawls, and Horton. This key resource will make an important contribution to anarchist political theory and to anarchist studies more generally.

The Oxford Handbook of Political Science

We are not yet in a good position definitively to compare Lockean versions of
liberal justice with their more egalitarian ... One line of objection holds that a
sharper line needs to be drawn between what we owe to one another and what
each ...

Author: Robert E. Goodin

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191619795

Category: Political Science

Page: 1312

View: 343

Drawing on the rich resources of the ten-volume series of The Oxford Handbooks of Political Science, this one-volume distillation provides a comprehensive overview of all the main branches of contemporary political science: political theory; political institutions; political behavior; comparative politics; international relations; political economy; law and politics; public policy; contextual political analysis; and political methodology. Sixty-seven of the top political scientists worldwide survey recent developments in those fields and provide penetrating introductions to exciting new fields of study. Following in the footsteps of the New Handbook of Political Science edited by Robert Goodin and Hans-Dieter Klingemann a decade before, this Oxford Handbook will become an indispensable guide to the scope and methods of political science as a whole. It will serve as the reference book of record for political scientists and for those following their work for years to come.

Emotions Values and the Law

Thomas Scanlon's account of the obligation to keep a promise, which he
presents in chapter 7 of his book What We Owe to Each Other, has reinvigorated
philosophical debate about the nature and grounds of this obligation.1 In the
chapter's ...

Author: John Deigh

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780199721634

Category: Philosophy

Page: 264

View: 815

Emotions, Values, and the Law brings together ten of John Deigh's essays written over the past fifteen years. In the first five essays, Deigh ask questions about the nature of emotions and the relation of evaluative judgment to the intentionality of emotions, and critically examines the cognitivist theories of emotion that have dominated philosophy and psychology over the past thirty years. A central criticism of these theories is that they do not satisfactorily account for the emotions of babies or animals other than human beings. Drawing on this criticism, Deigh develops an alternative theory of the intentionality of emotions on which the education of emotions explains how human emotions, which innately contain no evaluative thought, come to have evaluative judgments as their principal cognitive component. The second group of five essays challenge the idea of the voluntary as essential to understanding moral responsibility, moral commitment, political obligation, and other moral and political phenomena that have traditionally been thought to depend on people's will. Each of these studies focuses on a different aspect of our common moral and political life and shows, contrary to conventional opinion, that it does not depend on voluntary action or the exercise of a will constituted solely by rational thought. Together, the essays in this collection represent an effort to shift our understanding of the phenomena traditionally studied in moral and political philosophy from that of their being products of reason and will, operating independently of feeling and sentiment to that of their being manifestations of the work of emotion. "Deigh's writing is clear and precise, his arguments are strong, and he uses a wide range of real world examples that give his essays a vibrant and very readable character." - Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews "I believe that Deigh is as clear-headed and insightful a philosopher as is currently at work today in the areas of moral, political, and legal philosophy and moral psychology, and I believe these essays beautifully demonstrate his many virtues." - Herbert Morris, University of California, Low Angeles Law School "[John Deigh] has acquired a very good knowledge of a field which he has very much made his own. No one writes better or thinks more productively on that area of thought where the theory of the emotions, psychoanalysis, value theory, and the theory of law intersect. And if we closely connect the name Deigh with this particular concatenation of topics, I believe that very soon there will be a number of voices clamoring to be heard in this area." - Richard Wollheim, University of California, Berkeley

Words From the Fire

Carta for the in-stitution.4 He spoke about the professional responsibility of the
faculty, saying that all who teach here must sign the confession of faith, pledging
to teach in ... What we owe to God leads inexorably to what we owe to each other.

Author: R. Albert Mohler, Jr.

Publisher: Moody Publishers

ISBN: 1575673673

Category: Religion

Page: 208

View: 678

If God has spoken, then the highest human aspiration must be to hear what the Creator has said. God has indeed spoken, through the Ten Commandments, and Al Mohler explores this revelation of God and the implications for His people. The promise is to hear, to obey, and to live. These "Ten Words" tell us who God is and what His people should look like. Mohler is a respected voice on the state of our culture (and the church) today. The Ten Commandments speak to current issues today such as the exclusivity of the Christian God, the essence of worship, capital punishment, just war, business ethics and the postmodern definition of truth.

American Gridlock

For example, Harvard philosopher Thomas Scanlon published an important book
on justice entitled What We Owe to Each Other in 1998.25 In his theory, Scanlon
eschews the use of the highly analytic approaches reviewed in Harsanyi's ...

Author: H. Woody Brock

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118234626

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 304

View: 895

A sensible solution to getting our economy back on track Pessimism is ubiquitous throughout the Western World as the pressing issues of massive debt, high unemployment, and anemic economic growth divide the populace into warring political camps. Right-and Left-wing ideologues talk past each other, with neither side admitting the other has any good ideas. In American Gridlock, leading economist and political theorist H. Woody Brock bridges the Left/Right divide, illuminating a clear path out of our economic quagmire. Arguing from first principles and with rigorous logic, Brock demonstrates that the choice before us is not between free market capitalism and a government-driven economy. Rather, the solution to our problems will require enactment of constructive policies that allow "true" capitalism to flourish even as they incorporate social policies that help those who truly need it. Brock demonstrates how deductive logic (as opposed to ideologically driven data analysis) can transform the way we think about these problems and lead us to new and different solutions that cross the ideological divide. Drawing on new theories such as game theory and the economics of uncertainty that are based upon deductive logic, Brock reveals fresh ideas for tackling issues central to the 2012 U.S, Presidential election and to the nation’s long-run future: Demonstrating that the concept of a government “deficit” is highly problematic since it blinds us to the distinction between a good deficit and a bad deficit – where a deficit is good if it results from borrowing dedicated to productive investment rather than to unproductive spending. Deriving the need for a U.S. Marshall Plan dedicated to very high levels of profitable infrastructure spending as the solution to today’s Lost Decade of high unemployment Drawing upon a logical extension of the Law of Supply and Demand to demonstrate how the health-care spending crisis can be completely resolved by letting supply increase at a faster rate than demand Utilizing the theory of bargaining inaugurated by the “Beautiful Mind” mathematician John F. Nash, Jr., to help us avoid being repeatedly duped in our negotiations with China Making use of a completely new theory of market risk recently developed at Stanford University to demonstrate why dramatically limiting leverage is the key reform to preventing future Perfect Storms, whereas hoping to banish “greed” amounts to whistling Dixie Deducting from first principles a solution to the contentious issue of fair shares of the economic pie, a solution that integrates the two fundamental norms of “to each according to his contribution” and “to each according to his need.” Profound, timely and important, American Gridlock cuts through the stale biases of the Right and Left, advances new ways of thinking, and provides creative solutions to the problems that threaten American society.

Justice in a Changing World

1 Introduction One of the most important questions in contemporary political
philosophy is that of which principles ought to ... in that it addresses the issue of
what we owe to each other, and of social justice, in that it attends to the
organization of ...

Author: Cecile Fabre

Publisher: Polity

ISBN: 0745639704

Category: Philosophy

Page: 174

View: 410

Should governments give special rights to ethnic minorities? Should rich countries open their borders to economic immigrants? When implementing economic & environmental policicies should current generations take into account the interests of future generations? This book will be a valuable resource for students of political theory.