Optics and the Theory of Electrons

Wolfgang Pauli, Charles P. Enz. Foreword by Victor F . Weisskopf Preface by the
Editor 1 . Geometrical Optics 1 . Fermat ' s principle 2 . The principles of Malus
and Huygens . Laws of image formation 3 . Hamilton ' s theory 4 . Photometry 2 .

Author: Wolfgang Pauli

Publisher: Courier Corporation

ISBN: 9780486414584

Category: Science

Page: 159

View: 218

Lectures by distinguished physicist examine geometrical optics, theory of interference and diffraction, Maxwell's Theory, crystal optics, and molecular optics. Peerless resource for students and professionals. Numerous helpful figures.

Principles of Electron Optics

The study of such beams forms the subject Of electron optics, which divides
naturally into geometrical optics, where effects due to ... It is also needed to
explain all interference phenomena, notably holography, and in formal
coherence theory.

Author: Peter W. Hawkes

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 0080984169

Category: Science

Page: 752

View: 900

The three volumes in the PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRON OPTICS Series constitute the first comprehensive treatment of electron optics in over forty years. While Volumes 1 and 2 are devoted to geometrical optics, Volume 3 is concerned with wave optics and effects due to wave length. Subjects covered include: Derivation of the laws of electron propagation from SchrUdinger's equation Image formation and the notion of resolution The interaction between specimens and electrons Image processing Electron holography and interference Coherence, brightness, and the spectral function Together, these works comprise a unique and informative treatment of the subject. Volume 3, like its predecessors, will provide readers with both a textbook and an invaluable reference source.

Scanning Electron Microscopy

... probe current Ip. 2.2.5 Wave-Optical Theory of Electron-Probe Formation The
foregoing geometric-optical treatment of lens aberrations is adequate for the
discussion in Sect. 2.2.4 of electron-probe formation when using thermionic
cathodes.

Author: Ludwig Reimer

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3540389679

Category: Science

Page: 529

View: 479

Scanning Electron Microscopy provides a description of the physics of electron-probe formation and of electron-specimen interactions. The different imaging and analytical modes using secondary and backscattered electrons, electron-beam-induced currents, X-ray and Auger electrons, electron channelling effects, and cathodoluminescence are discussed to evaluate specific contrasts and to obtain quantitative information.

Theory of Optical Processes in Semiconductors

4.1 Introduction Optical transitions in atoms and molecules occur between
discrete levels. ... The band theory of solids, including semiconductors, is a many-
particle theory involving all the electrons and ions and their mutual interactions.

Author: P. K. Basu

Publisher: Clarendon Press

ISBN: 019158133X

Category: Science

Page: 464

View: 116

Semiconductor optelectronic devices are at the heart of all information generation and processing systems and are likely to be essential components of future optical computers. With more emphasis on optoelectronics and photonics in graduate programmes in physics and engineering, there is a need for a text providing a basic understanding of the important physical phenomena involved. Such a training is necessary for the design, optimization and search for new materials, devices, and application areas. This book provides a simple quantum mechanical theory of important optical processes, i.e., band-to- band, intersubband and excitonic absorption and recombination in bulk, quantum wells, wires, dots, superlattices and strained layers including electro-optic effects. The classical theory of absorption, quantization of radiation, and band picture based on k.p perturbation has been included to provide the necessary background. Prerequisites for the book are a knowledge of quantum mechanics and solid state theory. Problems have been set at the end of each chapter, some of which may guide the reader to study processes not covered in the book. The application areas of the phenomena are also indicated. This book is intended for use by graduate students in physics and engineering, beginners in the field and engineers. The use of simple one-electron theory throughout may also make parts of it useful for second- and third-year undergraduates.

Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics

ADVANCES IN IMAGING AND ELECTRON PHYSICS, VOL. 97 Quantum Theory
of the Optics of Charged Particles R. JAGANNATHAN AND S. A. KHAN The
Institute of Mathematical Sciences, C.I.T. Campus, Tharamani, Madras 600113,
India ...

Author:

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 9780080577630

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 420

View: 218

Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics merges two long-running serials--Advances in Electronics and Electron Physics and Advances in Optical & Electron Microscopy. It features extended articles onthe physics of electron devices (especially semiconductor devices), particle optics at high and low energies, microlithography, image science and digital image processing, electromagnetic wave propagation, electron microscopy, and the computing methods used in all these domains.

static and dynamic electron optics

One may to some extent characterize the difference by stating that ' focusing ' in
static electron optics and in the theory of particle accelerators relates to the
collective behaviour of trajectories in beams of finite and of infinite lengths
respectively ...

Author:

Publisher: CUP Archive

ISBN:

Category:

Page:

View: 566


Advances in Electronics and Electron Physics

Scalar Diffraction Theory in Electron Optics JIRs KOMRSKA Institute of Instrument
Technology, Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences, Brno, Czechoslovakia I.
Introduction ................................................................................... 139 II. The Diffraction
 ...

Author:

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 9780080576930

Category: Computers

Page: 343

View: 355

Advances in Electronics and Electron Physics

Optical Theories

CHAPTER V THEORY OF RELATIVITY 284 . We have seen that a theory of
Electrons , as singularities in an all - pervading medium is capable of explaining
in a fairly satisfactory manner nearly all known optical phenomena . And thus ,
while ...

Author: Devendra Náth Mallik

Publisher: CUP Archive

ISBN:

Category:

Page: 16

View: 408


Theory of Electron Atom Collisions Part One Potential Scattering

... particularly important for electron scattering by complex atoms where t/o can be
chosen to be a potential representing the transitions between a few states of the
target and U^ is then a separable form of an optical potential allowing for virtual ...

Author: Philip G. Burke

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780306445460

Category: Science

Page: 255

View: 681

The authors aim to hone the theory of electron-atom and electron-ion collisions by developing mathematical equations and comparing their results to the wealth of recent experimental data. This first of three parts focuses on potential scattering, and will serve as an introduction to many of the concepts covered in Parts II and III. As these processes occur in so many of the physical sciences, researchers in astrophysics, atmospheric physics, plasma physics, and laser physics will all benefit from the monograph.

Hot Electrons in Semiconductors

6 Scattering of electrons by optical modes in bulk semiconductors and quantum
wells M. Babiker and N. A. Zakhleniuk 6.1 ... This is why field theory is the natural
theoretical framework for long wave - length lattice vibrations in crystal lattices .

Author: N. Balkan

Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand

ISBN: 9780198500582

Category: Science

Page: 512

View: 462

Electrons in a semiconductor device pick up energy from the applied voltage or from the light that is incident on the device. They dissipate that energy by causing the semiconductor crystal lattice to vibrate more strongly. If the excess energy is given to the electrons at a faster rate than that lost to the lattice, however, the average energy and the temperature of the electrons increase very rapidly. They can become much hotter than the surrounding crystallattice. When this happens, the electron motion in the device changes its character; current no longer increases linearly with the applied voltage; it may saturate or in some cases may even decrease with increasing voltage. Ohms law breaks down completely. How this happens, and the impact of the phenomenonon current research in semiconductors and on the electronic and optoelectronic technology is the subject matter of this book.

A Theory of Electron Waves in Light

physical optics theory , which is known to be a statistical theory of photons . No
use has been made in this book of this photon model except for the basic
hypothesis of an electron frequency we . This electron - frequency hypothesis has
been ...

Author: Chester J. Marcinkowski

Publisher:

ISBN:

Category: Electromagnetic waves

Page: 206

View: 127


Quantum Entanglement in Electron Optics

These and other such theoretical developments, sometimes followed, and at
other times preceded, by experiments in the very early part of the twentieth
century, led to the formulation of the now well-known quantum theory. Einstein,
however ...

Author: Naresh Chandra

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3642240704

Category: Science

Page: 301

View: 887

This monograph forms an interdisciplinary study in atomic, molecular, and quantum information (QI) science. Here a reader will find that applications of the tools developed in QI provide new physical insights into electron optics as well as properties of atoms & molecules which, in turn, are useful in studying QI both at fundamental and applied levels. In particular, this book investigates entanglement properties of flying electronic qubits generated in some of the well known processes capable of taking place in an atom or a molecule following the absorption of a photon. Here, one can generate Coulombic or fine-structure entanglement of electronic qubits. The properties of these entanglements differ not only from each other, but also from those when spin of an inner-shell photoelectron is entangled with the polarization of the subsequent fluorescence. Spins of an outer-shell electron and of a residual photoion can have free or bound entanglement in a laboratory.

Theory of Electron Atom Collisions

... 106 Polarization potential Buckingham form of 35–36, 55 effective range theory
for, 124–126, 134 in electron–argon ... 53–54, 65–66, 72– 73 long-range ro, 123
–124 long-range ro, 126–129 optical, 24–28 polarization, 35–36, 124–126, 134 ...

Author: Philip G. Burke

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1489915672

Category: Science

Page: 255

View: 357

The authors aim to hone the theory of electron-atom and electron-ion collisions by developing mathematical equations and comparing their results to the wealth of recent experimental data. This first of three parts focuses on potential scattering, and will serve as an introduction to many of the concepts covered in Parts II and III. As these processes occur in so many of the physical sciences, researchers in astrophysics, atmospheric physics, plasma physics, and laser physics will all benefit from the monograph.

Electron Beams Lenses and Optics

Theory. of. Diffraction. Most of our analysis in the preceding chapters has been
based on the representation of electrons (or any other charged particles) as
material particles which traverse discrete mechanical trajectories in electric and/
or ...

Author: A. B. El-Kareh

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 1483271781

Category: Science

Page: 334

View: 239

Electron Beams, Lenses, and Optics, Volume 2 deals with the aberrations relating to electronic optics. This book discusses the geometrical aberrations of lenses; spherical aberration of electric and magnetic lenses; and measurement of the spherical aberration of various electric and magnetic lenses. The theory of diffraction; influence of space charge in high density electron beams; and chromatic aberration are also deliberated. This publication likewise covers the classification of the geometrical aberrations; derivation of the coefficient of spherical aberration according to Glaser; and pepper-pot method or Hartmann's test. The Fraunhofers diffraction through a circular aperture; force due to coulomb repulsion; and upper limit of the chromatic aberration of magnetic lenses are also included. This volume is valuable to industrial scientists and engineers concerned with electrostatic and magnetic lenses.

Subwavelength Optics Theory and Technology

6.2.2 Principle of FIB imaging, milling, and deposition When energetic ions hit the
surface of a solid sample, they lose energy to the electrons of the solid as well as
to its atoms. The most important physical effects of the incident ions on the ...

Author: Yongqi Fu

Publisher: Bentham Science Publishers

ISBN: 9781608050505

Category: Science

Page: 214

View: 718

"From the beginning of this century, there has been a dramatic increase in interest in the study of surface plasmon polaritons-based metallic subwavelength structures and learning. This is a refreshing concise book on issues and considerations in designing"

Quantum Theory of the Optical and Electronic Properties of Semiconductors

Chapter 15 Optical Properties of a Quasi - Equilibrium Electron - Hole Plasma In
situations where either the width of a single pulse or the delay between the pump
and probe pulse are longer than the intraband relaxation time , the electron and ...

Author: Hartmut Haug

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9789812387561

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 453

View: 880

This invaluable textbook presents the basic elements needed to understand and research into semiconductor physics. It deals with elementary excitations in bulk and low-dimensional semiconductors, including quantum wells, quantum wires and quantum dots. The basic principles underlying optical nonlinearities are developed, including excitonic and many-body plasma effects. Fundamentals of optical bistability, semiconductor lasers, femtosecond excitation, the optical Stark effect, the semiconductor photon echo, magneto-optic effects, as well as bulk and quantum-confined Franz-Keldysh effects, are covered. The material is presented in sufficient detail for graduate students and researchers with a general background in quantum mechanics.

Principles of Optics

Electromagnetic Theory of Propagation, Interference and Diffraction of Light Max
Born, Emil Wolf ... It may be noted that this applies in particular to the most
recondite chapter of electron optics : the wave theory of lens aberrations .

Author: Max Born

Publisher: CUP Archive

ISBN: 9780521784498

Category: Science

Page: 986

View: 684

Principles of Optics is one of the classic science books of the twentieth century, and probably the most influential book in optics published in the past 40 years. The new edition is the first ever thoroughly revised and expanded edition of this standard text. Among the new material, much of which is not available in any other optics text, is a section on the CAT scan (computerized axial tomography), which has revolutionized medical diagnostics. The book also includes a new chapter on scattering from inhomogeneous media which provides a comprehensive treatment of the theory of scattering of scalar as well as of electromagnetic waves, including the Born series and the Rytov series. The chapter also presents an account of the principles of diffraction tomography - a refinement of the CAT scan - to which Emil Wolf, one of the authors, has made a basic contribution by formulating in 1969 what is generally regarded to be the basic theorem in this field. The chapter also includes an account of scattering from periodic potentials and its connection to the classic subject of determining the structure of crystals from X-ray diffraction experiments, including accounts of von Laue equations, Bragg's law, the Ewald sphere of reflection and the Ewald limiting sphere, both generalized to continuous media. These topics, although originally introduced in connection with the theory of X-ray diffraction by crystals, have since become of considerable relevance to optics, for example in connection with deep holograms. Other new topics covered in this new edition include interference with broad-band light, which introduces the reader to an important phenomenon discovered relatively recently by Emil Wolf, namely the generation of shifts of spectral lines and other modifications of spectra of radiated fields due to the state of coherence of a source. There is also a section on the so-called Rayleigh-Sommerfield diffraction theory which, in recent times, has been finding increasing popularity among optical scientists. There are also several new appendices, including one on energy conservation in scalar wavefields, which is seldom discussed in books on optics. The new edition of this standard reference will continue to be invaluable to advanced undergraduates, graduate students and researchers working in most areas of optics.

Geometrical Charged Particle Optics

The conventional theory of electron motion in static fields considers the z-
coordinate of a charged particle as the independent variable measured along the
optic axis. Usually the optic axis is chosen to coincide with the central trajectory of
a ...

Author: Harald Rose

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3642321194

Category: Science

Page: 507

View: 935

This second edition is an extended version of the first edition of Geometrical Charged-Particle Optics. The updated reference monograph is intended as a guide for researchers and graduate students who are seeking a comprehensive treatment of the design of instruments and beam-guiding systems of charged particles and their propagation in electromagnetic fields. Wave aspects are included in this edition for explaining electron holography, the Aharanov-Bohm effect and the resolution of electron microscopes limited by diffraction. Several methods for calculating the electromagnetic field are presented and procedures are outlined for calculating the properties of systems with arbitrarily curved axis. Detailed methods are presented for designing and optimizing special components such as aberration correctors, spectrometers, energy filters monochromators, ion traps, electron mirrors and cathode lenses. In particular, the optics of rotationally symmetric lenses, quadrupoles, and systems composed of these elements are discussed extensively. Beam properties such as emittance, brightness, transmissivity and the formation of caustics are outlined. Relativistic motion and spin precession of the electron are treated in a covariant way by introducing the Lorentz-invariant universal time and by extending Hamilton’s principle from three to four spatial dimensions where the laboratory time is considered as the fourth pseudo-spatial coordinate. Using this procedure and introducing the self action of the electron, its accompanying electromagnetic field and its radiation field are calculated for arbitrary motion. In addition, the Stern-Gerlach effect is revisited for atomic and free electrons.

Atomic and Molecular Nonlinear Optics Theory Experiment and Computation

Equations (3) and (4) are written in the molecular coordinate system in which the
interacting atoms are located on the axis z, and the center of the ... In this
coordinate system r1 and r2 are coordinates of the first and of the second
electrons.

Author: G. Maroulis

Publisher: IOS Press

ISBN: 1607507420

Category: Science

Page: 544

View: 808

The papers collected in this volume in honor of the late Stanisław Kielich cover an impressive range of modern subjects in molecular science. These subjects include, among others, the nonlinear optics of molecules, new approaches to the electronic structure of large molecules, the properties of carbon nanotubes, fluorescence polarization spectroscopy, computational studies of systems of fundamental interest to collision-induced spectroscopy, the simulation of fluids, NLO materials, chemical bonding in complex molecules, the NLO properties of functionalized DNA and the magnetic properties of molecular assemblies. Written by eminent specialists, the papers should offer valuable guidance to a wide community of graduate students and researchers.

Charged Particle Optics Theory

Chapter 1 Introduction: The optical nature of a charged particle beam Modern
physics teaches that all matter is made ... For example, an atom consists of a
cloud of negatively charged electrons orbiting a compact, positively charged
nucleus.

Author: Timothy R. Groves

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1482229951

Category: Science

Page: 369

View: 649

Charged Particle Optics Theory: An Introduction identifies the most important concepts of charged particle optics theory, and derives each mathematically from the first principles of physics. Assuming an advanced undergraduate-level understanding of calculus, this book follows a logical progression, with each concept building upon the preceding one. Beginning with a non-mathematical survey of the optical nature of a charged particle beam, the text: Discusses both geometrical and wave optics, as well as the correspondence between them Describes the two-body scattering problem, which is essential to the interaction of a fast charged particle with matter Introduces electron emission as a practical consequence of quantum mechanics Addresses the Fourier transform and the linear second-order differential equation Includes problems to amplify and fill in the theoretical details, with solutions presented separately Charged Particle Optics Theory: An Introduction makes an ideal textbook as well as a convenient reference on the theoretical origins of the optics of charged particle beams. It is intended to prepare the reader to understand the large body of published research in this mature field, with the end result translated immediately to practical application.