Physics of Energy Conversion

Her research topics include the photo-electrochemical production of solar fuels. Konrad Schönleber is a researcher in the group of Prof. Krischer which he joined after graduating in physics from the Technische Universität München.

Author: Katharina Krischer

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG

ISBN: 1501510630

Category: Science

Page: 215

View: 998

A profound understanding of the physical laws underlying energy converters is a prerequisite for a sustainable use of our energy resources. The aim of this textbook is to provide a unified view on the different energy conversion processes ranging from power plants to solar cells. It offers an interdisciplinary introduction to energy sciences for senior undergraduate and graduate students from natural sciences and engineering. The central theme is the treatment of energy converters as open thermodynamical systems and the performance of efficiency analyses, based on the concept of exergy. Presents the physics behind the most important energy converters in a unified framework. Evaluates the performance of ideal and realistic energy converters in terms of energy and exergy efficiencies Provides basic concepts needed for a discussion of energy converters, such as chemical and applied thermodynamics, electrochemistry and solid state physics. About the Authors Katharina Krischer is aprofessor of physics at the Technische Universität München, Germany. She has taught lectures on energy sciences for undergraduate and graduate students for more than 10 years. Her research topics include the photo-electrochemical production of solar fuels. Konrad Schönleber is a researcher in the group of Prof. Krischer which he joined after graduating in physics from the Technische Universität München. His research interest focuses on light-driven semiconductor electrochemistry and its application for renewable energies.

The Physics of Thermoelectric Energy Conversion

This book outlines the principles of thermoelectric generation and refrigeration from the discovery of the Seebeck and Peltier effects in the nineteenth century through the introduction of semiconductor thermoelements in the mid-twentieth ...

Author: Julian Goldsmid

Publisher: Morgan & Claypool Publishers

ISBN: 1681746425

Category: Science

Page: 104

View: 968

This book outlines the principles of thermoelectric generation and refrigeration from the discovery of the Seebeck and Peltier effects in the nineteenth century through the introduction of semiconductor thermoelements in the mid-twentieth century to the more recent development of nanostructured materials. It is shown that the efficiency of a thermoelectric generator and the coefficient of performance of a thermoelectric refrigerator can be related to a quantity known as the figure of merit. The figure of merit depends on the Seebeck coefficient and the ratio of the electrical to thermal conductivity. It is shown that expressions for these parameters can be derived from the band theory of solids. The conditions for favourable electronic properties are discussed. The methods for selecting materials with a low lattice thermal conductivity are outlined and the ways in which the scattering of phonons can be enhanced are described. The application of these principles is demonstrated for specific materials including the bismuth telluride alloys, bismuth antimony, alloys based on lead telluride, silicon-germanium and materials described as phonon-glass electron-crystals. It is shown that there can be advantages in using the less familiar transverse thermoelectric effects and the transverse thermomagnetic effects. Finally, practical aspects of thermoelectric generation and refrigeration are discussed. The book is aimed at readers who do not have a specialised knowledge of solid state physics.

The Physics of Solar Energy Conversion

The Physics of Solar Energy Conversion introduces the main physico-chemical principles that govern the operation of energy devices for energy conversion and storage, with a detailed view of the principles of solar energy conversion using ...

Author: Juan Bisquert

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 0429000146

Category: Science

Page: 470

View: 242

Research on advanced energy conversion devices such as solar cells has intensified in the last two decades. A broad landscape of candidate materials and devices were discovered and systematically studied for effective solar energy conversion and utilization. New concepts have emerged forming a rather powerful picture embracing the mechanisms and limitation to efficiencies of different types of devices. The Physics of Solar Energy Conversion introduces the main physico-chemical principles that govern the operation of energy devices for energy conversion and storage, with a detailed view of the principles of solar energy conversion using advanced materials. Key Features include: Highlights recent rapid advances with the discovery of perovskite solar cells and their development. Analyzes the properties of organic solar cells, lithium ion batteries, light emitting diodes and the semiconductor materials for hydrogen production by water splitting. Embraces concepts from nanostructured and highly disordered materials to lead halide perovskite solar cells Takes a broad perspective and comprehensively addresses the fundamentals so that the reader can apply these and assess future developments and technologies in the field. Introduces basic techniques and methods for understanding the materials and interfaces that compose operative energy devices such as solar cells and solar fuel converters.

Energy Conversion

Energy Conversion offers extensive coverage of basic principles, applied thermodynamics, the economics of power plants, turbomachinery, and lucid discussion of the environmental impact of energy conversion.

Author: Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics Reiner Decher

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 9780195079593

Category: Science

Page: 676

View: 616

As conventional energy sources such as fossil fuels become increasingly scarce, scientists and engineers will need to rely more and more on new sources such as geothermal, solar, ocean thermal, magnetohydrodynamic, nuclear, and hydrogen energy to meet the world's energy demands. The utilization of all these forms of energy involves the conversion of heat to mechanical energy. Designed for senior level undergraduates, Energy Conversion develops an understanding of the physical processes involved in the transformation of one form of energy to another. The emphasis is on a description of models of the elementary processes to allow assessment of performance potential and to allow a determination of the sensitivity to design choices. Since many energy conversion processes involve the manipulation of gaseous substances, there is heavy emphasis on the description of fluids and gases in particular. Energy conversion processes involve heat and work interactions between a system and its environment, as well as state and property decisions. In order to arrive at simple, understandable relations, simplifications are made which allow description at the expense of some numerical accuracy. More accurate descriptions can be made with more sophisticated computational tools and nearly all numerical calculations presented are made with the equations developed, so that the student can implement them on a computer and reproduce them with his or her own choice of parameters. In most chapters, problems are presented which are designed to aid the student in the practical applications of the underlying principles of energy conversion to the performance of real engines. Energy Conversion offers extensive coverage of basic principles, applied thermodynamics, the economics of power plants, turbomachinery, and lucid discussion of the environmental impact of energy conversion.

Solar Energy Conversion

With contributions by numerous experts

Author: B. O. Seraphin

Publisher:

ISBN: 9783662308486

Category:

Page: 356

View: 765


Energy Conversion Systems

Highlighting The Physics And Engineering Aspects Of Energy Conversion Systems, This Book Presents An Exhaustive Exposition Of Both Conventional And Non-Conventional Conversion Systems. * Presents A Detailed Description Of Nuclear And ...

Author: Rakosh Das Begamudre

Publisher: New Age International

ISBN: 9788122412666

Category: Direct energy conversion

Page: 440

View: 611

Highlighting The Physics And Engineering Aspects Of Energy Conversion Systems, This Book Presents An Exhaustive Exposition Of Both Conventional And Non-Conventional Conversion Systems. * Presents A Detailed Description Of Nuclear And Photovoltaic Power. * Discusses Magneto Hydrodynamics, Wind And Ocean Energy, Fossil Fuel And Hydroectric Power. * Explains Coal Gasification, Biomass And Geothermal Energy, Thermo-Electric Converters And Fuel Cells. * Also Explains Problems Of Cogeneration And Energy Storage. * Highlights The Global Energy Scenario And The Environmental Effects Of Various Energy Conversion Systems. * Illustrative Examples Are Provided Throughout The Book. Review And Multiple Choice Questions And Practice Problems Are Provided At The End Each Chapter.With Its Comprehensive Coverage And Systematic Presentation, This Is An Essential Text For Electrical Engineering Students. Practising Engineers Would Also Find This Book Extremely Useful As A Reference Source.

Energy Conversion

The book also gives a comprehensive description of the direct energy conversion methods, including, Photovoltaics, Fuel Cells, Thermoelectric conversion, Thermionics and MHD It briefly reviews the physics of PV electrical generation, ...

Author: D. Yogi Goswami

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781420044324

Category: Science

Page: 936

View: 689

Discussing methods for maximizing available energy, Energy Conversion surveys the latest advances in energy conversion from a wide variety of currently available energy sources. The book describes energy sources such as fossil fuels, biomass including refuse-derived biomass fuels, nuclear, solar radiation, wind, geothermal, and ocean, then provides the terminology and units used for each energy resource and their equivalence. It includes an overview of the steam power cycle, gas turbines, internal combustion engines, hydraulic turbines, Stirling engines, advanced fossil fuel power systems, and combined-cycle power plants. It outlines the development, current use, and future of nuclear fission. The book also gives a comprehensive description of the direct energy conversion methods, including, Photovoltaics, Fuel Cells, Thermoelectric conversion, Thermionics and MHD It briefly reviews the physics of PV electrical generation, discusses the PV system design process, presents several PV system examples, summarizes the latest developments in crystalline silicon PV, and explores some of the present challenges facing the large scale deployment of PV energy sources. The book discusses five energy storage categories: electrical, electromechanical, mechanical, direct thermal, and thermochemical and the storage media that can store and deliver energy. With contributions from researchers at the top of their fields and on the cutting edge of technologies, the book provides comprehensive coverage of end use efficiency of green technology. It includes in-depth discussions not only of better efficient energy management in buildings and industry, but also of how to plan and design for efficient use and management from the ground up.

Energy Conversion Efficiency of Solar Cells

This book offers a concise primer on energy conversion efficiency and the Shockley-Queisser limit in single p-n junction solar cells.

Author: Takashi Kita

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9811390894

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 202

View: 852

This book offers a concise primer on energy conversion efficiency and the Shockley-Queisser limit in single p-n junction solar cells. It covers all the important fundamental physics necessary to understand the conversion efficiency, which is indispensable in studying, investigating, analyzing, and designing solar cells in practice. As such it is valuable as a supplementary text for courses on photovoltaics, and bridges the gap between advanced topics in solar cell device engineering and the fundamental physics covered in undergraduate courses. The book first introduces the principles and features of solar cells compared to those of chemical batteries, and reviews photons, statistics and radiation as the physics of the source energy. Based on these foundations, it clarifies the conversion efficiency of a single p-n junction solar cell and discusses the Shockley-Queisser limit. Furthermore, it looks into various concepts of solar cells for breaking through the efficiency limit given in the single junction solar cell and presents feasible theoretical predictions. To round out readers’ knowledge of p-n junctions, the final chapter also reviews the essential semiconductor physics. The foundation of solar cell physics and engineering provided here is a valuable resource for readers with no background in solar cells, such as upper undergraduate and master students. At the same time, the deep insights provided allow readers to step seamlessly into other advanced books and their own research topics.

Energy Conversion for Space Power

The book is a good source of information for readers and scientists wanting to explore the potential of energy conversion in space power technology.

Author: Nathan Snyder

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0323142486

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 796

View: 497

Progress in Astronautics and Rocketry, Volume 3: Energy Conversion for Space Power focuses on the use of dependable electric power sources on space vehicles. Composed of various literature, the book first discusses the physics of thermoelectricity, thermoelectric generator of materials, the use of semiconductors in thermoelectric conversion, and the use of high temperature thermoelectric materials for power generation. The text also presents experiments on the effect of irradiation on thermoelectric materials, thermoelectric elements in space power systems, and thermionics. The book then describes photovoltaic effect and conversion of solar energy; trends in silicon solar cell technology; the use of silicon solar cells in energy conversion; and how radiation affects solar cell power systems. The text notes the specifications of batteries if used in communications satellites; the use of positive-displacement engines and turbines on cryogenic power systems; and the characteristics of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) generators in space power conversion. The book is a good source of information for readers and scientists wanting to explore the potential of energy conversion in space power technology.

The Physics of Energy

A comprehensive and unified introduction to the science of energy sources, uses, and systems for students, scientists, engineers, and professionals.

Author: Robert L. Jaffe

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107016657

Category: Science

Page: 886

View: 905

A comprehensive and unified introduction to the science of energy sources, uses, and systems for students, scientists, engineers, and professionals.

Efficiency and Power in Energy Conversion and Storage

The discussion is based on the general footing of efficiency-power relations and energy-power relations (Ragone plots). The book is written for engineers and scientists with a bachelor-degree level of knowledge in physics.

Author: Thomas Christen

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 0429845243

Category: Science

Page: 168

View: 917

This textbook provides fundamental theoretical concepts for the understanding, modelling, and optimisation of energy conversion and storage devices. The discussion is based on the general footing of efficiency-power relations and energy-power relations (Ragone plots). The book is written for engineers and scientists with a bachelor-degree level of knowledge in physics.

Electromechanical Energy Conversion Ac

This book introduces electromechanical energy conversion through active learning.

Author: Mauricio Caldora Costa

Publisher: IOP Publishing Limited

ISBN: 9780750320825

Category:

Page: 300

View: 698

This book introduces electromechanical energy conversion through active learning. Covering linear and non-linear magnetic circuits, transformers, electromechanical energy and forces, and excited electromechanical systems, along with detailed examination of various machines involved, the book contains numerous 'hands-on' challenges that encourage a creative and determined approach to problem-solving, making it an ideal text for undergraduate courses.

Physics of Solar Cells

New exercises after each chapter help students to consolidate their freshly acquired knowledge, while the book also serves as a reference for researchers already working in this exciting and challenging field.

Author: Peter Würfel

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 3527408576

Category: Science

Page: 244

View: 675

This text contains the latest knowledge on the mechanisms of solar energy conversion. Requiring no more than standard physics knowledge, it enables readers to understand the factors driving conversion efficiency and to apply this knowledge to their own solar cell development.

Renewable Energy

In this new edition, Sørensen presents his audience with updated data about renewables market penetration, current insights on climate change, the most recent available technology for renewable energy conversion, transmission and storage, ...

Author: Bent Sørensen

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 0128026103

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 1056

View: 697

Bent Sørensen’s Renewable Energy: Physics, Engineering, Environmental Impacts, Economics and Planning, Fifth Edition, continues the tradition by providing a thorough and current overview of the entire renewable energy sphere. Since its first edition, this standard reference source helped put renewable energy on the map of scientific agendas. Several renewable energy solutions no longer form just a marginal addition to energy supply, but have become major players, with the promise to become the backbone of an energy system suitable for life in the sustainability lane. This volume is a problem-solving tool for engineers, researchers, students, consultants, and planners currently working in the field, as well as a detailed map of the renewables universe for those looking to expand into new technological specialties, offering the most comprehensive coverage of the subject available. The book has been structured around three parts in order to assist readers in focusing on the issues that impact them the most for a given project or question. PART I covers the basic scientific principles behind all major renewable energy resources, such as solar, wind, and biomass. PART II provides in-depth information about how these raw renewable sources can actually be converted into useful forms, transmitted into the grid, and stored for future utilization. Finally, PART III undertakes the aspects of energy planning, environmental impacts, and socio-economic issues on regional and global levels. In this new edition, Sørensen presents his audience with updated data about renewables market penetration, current insights on climate change, the most recent available technology for renewable energy conversion, transmission and storage, and revised planning scenarios and the future outlook. Covers the underlying physics and engineering of energy sources and conversion processes, including methodologies, models, and analysis Provides a better understanding of the scientific basis and current progress in the field Requires advanced knowledge of math and physics Provides a unique three part organization covering energy sources, conversion processes, and the related planning, environmental impacts, and socio-economic issues on regional and global levels New edition presents updated data about renewables market penetration, current insights on climate change, the most recent available technology for renewable energy conversion, transmission and storage, and revised planning scenarios and future outlook

Solar Cell Device Physics

This book consists of six chapters and begins by introducing the reader to the basic physical principles and materials properties that are the foundations of photovoltaic energy conversion, with emphasis on various photovoltaic devices ...

Author: Stephen Fonash

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0323154638

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 352

View: 899

Solar Cell Device Physics offers a balanced, in-depth qualitative and quantitative treatment of the physical principles and operating characteristics of solar cell devices. Topics covered include photovoltaic energy conversion and solar cell materials and structures, along with homojunction solar cells. Semiconductor-semiconductor heterojunction cells and surface-barrier solar cells are also discussed. This book consists of six chapters and begins by introducing the reader to the basic physical principles and materials properties that are the foundations of photovoltaic energy conversion, with emphasis on various photovoltaic devices capable of efficiently converting solar energy into usable electrical energy. The electronic and optical properties of crystalline, polycrystalline, and amorphous materials with both organic and inorganic materials are considered, together with the manner in which these properties change from one material class to another and the implications of such changes for photovoltaics. Generation, recombination, and bulk transport are also discussed. The two mechanisms of photocarrier collection in solar cells, drift and diffusion, are then compared. The remaining chapters focus on specific solar cell device classes defined in terms of the interface structure employed: homojunctions, semiconductor-semiconductor heterojunctions, and surface-barrier devices. This monograph is appropriate for use as a textbook for graduate students in engineering and the sciences and for seniors in electrical engineering and applied physics, as well as a reference book for those actively involved in solar cell research and development.

Nanostructured Materials for Solar Energy Conversion

This book deals with basic semiconductor physics, modelling of nanostructured solar cell, nanostructure of conventional solar cells such as silicon, CIS and CdTe, dye-sensitized solar cell, organic solar cell, photosynthetic materials, ...

Author: Tetsuo Soga

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780080468303

Category: Science

Page: 614

View: 484

Nanostructured Materials for Solar Energy Conversion covers a wide variety of materials and device types from inorganic materials to organic materials. This book deals with basic semiconductor physics, modelling of nanostructured solar cell, nanostructure of conventional solar cells such as silicon, CIS and CdTe, dye-sensitized solar cell, organic solar cell, photosynthetic materials, fullerene, extremely thin absorber (ETA) solar cell, quantum structured solar cell, intermediate band solar cell, carbon nanotube, etc. including basic principle and the latest results. There are many books written on conventional p-n junction solar cells, but few books focus on new concepts in this area. * Focuses on the use of nanostructured materials for solar energy * Looks at a wide variety of materials and device types * Covers both organic and inorganic materials

The Physics of Solar Cells

The book provides an explanation of the operation of photovoltaic devices from a broad perspective that embraces a variety of materials concepts, from nanostructured and highly disordered organic materials, to highly efficient devices such ...

Author: Juan Bisquert

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1351395572

Category: Science

Page: 226

View: 992

The book provides an explanation of the operation of photovoltaic devices from a broad perspective that embraces a variety of materials concepts, from nanostructured and highly disordered organic materials, to highly efficient devices such as the lead halide perovskite solar cells. The book establishes from the beginning a simple but very rich model of a solar cell, in order to develop and understand step by step the photovoltaic operation according to fundamental physical properties and constraints. It emphasizes the aspects pertaining to the functioning of a solar cell and the determination of limiting efficiencies of energy conversion. The final chapters of the book establish a more refined and realistic treatment of the many factors that determine the actual performance of experimental devices: transport gradients, interfacial recombination, optical losses and so forth. The book finishes with a short review of additional important aspects of solar energy conversion, such as the photonic aspects of spectral modification, and the direct conversion of solar photons to chemical fuel via electrochemical reactions.

Solar Energy Conversion Systems

This is a new solar text for the new generation of green job designers and developers.

Author: Jeffrey R. S. Brownson

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 0123973155

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 480

View: 433

Solar energy conversion requires a different mind-set from traditional energy engineering in order to assess distribution, scales of use, systems design, predictive economic models for fluctuating solar resources, and planning to address transient cycles and social adoption. Solar Energy Conversion Systems examines solar energy conversion as an integrative design process, applying systems thinking methods to a solid knowledge base for creators of solar energy systems. This approach permits different levels of access for the emerging broad audience of scientists, engineers, architects, planners, and economists. Traditional texts in solar energy engineering have often emerged from mechanical or chemical engineering fields. Instead, Solar Energy Conversion Systems approaches solar energy conversion from the perspectives of integrative design, environmental technology, sustainability science, and materials science in the wake of amazing new thin films, polymers, and glasses developed by the optoelectronics and semiconductor industries. This is a new solar text for the new generation of green job designers and developers. It’s highlighted with vignettes that break down solar conversion into useful stories and provides common points of reference, as well as techniques, for effective estimation of evolving technologies. Contextualizes solar conversion for systems design and implementation in practical applications Provides a complete understanding of solar power, from underlying science to essential economic outcomes Analytical approach emphasizes systems simulations from measured irradiance and weather data rather than estimations from "rules of thumb" Emphasizes integrative design and solar utility, where trans-disciplinary teams can develop sustainable solar solutions that increase client well-being and ecosystems services for a given locale

Third Generation Photovoltaics

Martin Green, one of the world’s foremost photovoltaic researchers, argues in this book that "second generation" photovoltaics will eventually reach its own material cost constraints, engendering a "third generation" of high performance ...

Author: Martin A. Green

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3540265635

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 160

View: 967

Photovoltaics, the direct conversion of sunlight to electricity, is now the fastest growing technology for electricity generation. Present "first generation" products use the same silicon wafers as in microelectronics. "Second generation" thin-films, now entering the market, have the potential to greatly improve the economics by eliminating material costs. Martin Green, one of the world’s foremost photovoltaic researchers, argues in this book that "second generation" photovoltaics will eventually reach its own material cost constraints, engendering a "third generation" of high performance thin-films. The book explores, self-consistently, the energy conversion potential of advanced approaches for improving photovoltaic performance and outlines possible implementation paths.

Solar Energy

The design of photovoltaic systems for real-life applications, with the physics behind solar energy generation.

Author: Olindo Isabella

Publisher:

ISBN: 9781906860325

Category:

Page: 488

View: 112

This comprehensive textbook takes you through everything you need to know about solar energy from the physics of photovoltaic (PV) cells through to the design of PV systems for real-life applications. Solar Energy is an invaluable reference for researchers, industrial engineers and designers working in solar energy generation. The book is also ideal for university and third-level physics or engineering courses on solar photovoltaics, with exercises to check students' understanding and reinforce learning. It is the perfect companion to the Massive Open Online Course (MOOC) on Solar Energy (DelftX, ET.3034TU) presented by co-author Arno Smets. The course is available in English on the nonprofit open source edX.org platform, and in Arabic on edraak.org. Over 100,000 students have already registered for these MOOCs.