Plant Gene Containment

The chapters are divided into two sections. The first section reviews concepts in gene containment, including environmental and commercial perspectives.

Author: Melvin J. Oliver

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118352688

Category: Science

Page: 224

View: 807

Gene Containment provides a comprehensive look at genetically modified organisms and the strategies and implementation of key methods to gene containment. The book is divided into 5 parts: An Introduction that discusses the need for biotechnology and GMOs, Section 1 looks at the need for gene containment, Part II discusses varying strategies for gene containment, section III explores the assessment of gene containment approaches, and section IV covers the steps involved in implementing gene containment. Gene Containment will provide a thorough and up to date look at gene containment research and the needs for implementing new strategies in this arena.

Development of Transgene Containment Technologies for Woody Plants

Transgenic technology provides a powerful tool for woody plant improvement.

Author: Wei Li

Publisher:

ISBN:

Category: Electronic dissertations

Page:

View: 111

Transgenic technology provides a powerful tool for woody plant improvement. However, the full utilization of this technology has been stagnant due to gene flow and food safety concerns. This dissertation describes two transgene containment techniques that are particularly useful for woody plants. The first one is a flowerless plant technique that can be used to prevent pollen- and seed-mediated transgene flow. We developed an artificial promoter sequence, rPTAG2I, and demonstrated that this sequence is floral-predominant in tobacco with no detectable activity in the vegetative tissues of tobacco and poplar. Transgenic tobacco plants expressing the Diphtheria toxin A (DT-A) gene driven by the rPTAG2I promoter exhibited a flowerless phenotype with enhanced shoot and root biomass. Over two growing seasons in the field, rPTAG2I::DT-A transgenic poplar plants displayed similar vegetative growth compared to wild type. The second technique used a root-predominant gene promoter (SbUGT) to drive the expression of an auxin biosynthetic gene (iaaM) and a cytokinin degradation gene (CKX) to improve rootstocks. We demonstrated that expression of both the iaaM and CKX genes, predominantly in roots, inhibited lateral bud release and enhanced both root initiation and biomass of rootstock. Also, the grafting success rates were improved even though non-transgenic scions were used. We have further shown that the use of the iaaM+CKX transgenic rootstocks led to improved non-transgenic scion growth even when the lateral buds on rootstock remained intact. Because of these characteristics, our technique takes advantages of transgenic technology but also eliminates the concerns of gene flow from flowers and fruits. In summary, the development of both the flowerless and iaaM+CKX rootstock techniques may provide useful tools to address gene flow and food safety concerns over transgenic woody plant species.

Gene Flow

This book examines gene flow of transgenes, such as herbicide resistance genes, with the goal of understanding the factors that may affect the process of gene flow.

Author: Wei Wei

Publisher: CABI

ISBN: 1789247489

Category: Science

Page: 167

View: 828

Gene flow is a natural process that occurs spontaneously and enables the evolution of life. However, with the release of genetically modified organisms, concerns have focused on introduced foreign transgenes and their dispersal in nature through gene flow. This book examines gene flow of transgenes, such as herbicide resistance genes, with the goal of understanding the factors that may affect the process of gene flow. A greater biological understanding is essential to make sound management regulatory decisions when also taking into consideration the processes that happen in conventional plants. Monitoring, modelling, and mitigation are the three most closely related elements of gene flow. The book includes both scientific reviews and perspectives on gene flow and experimental case studies, including studies of gene flow in soybean and poplar. The authors present diverse views and research methodologies to understand transgene flow.

Advances in Plastid Biology and Its Applications

Despite the vast amount of research, the molecular details of many aspects of plastid biology remains limited. Plastids possess their own high-copy number genome known as the plastome.

Author: Niaz Ahmad

Publisher: Frontiers Media SA

ISBN: 2889450481

Category:

Page:

View: 890

One of the distinguishing features of plants is the presence of membrane-bound organelles called plastids. Starting from proplastids (undifferentiated plastids) they readily develop into specialised types, which are involved in a range of cellular functions such as photosynthesis, nitrogen assimilation, biosynthesis of sucrose, starch, chlorophyll, carotenoids, fatty acids, amino acids, and secondary metabolites as well as a number of metabolic reactions like sulphur metabolism, The central role of plastids in many aspects of plant cell biology means an in-depth understanding is key for a holistic view of plant physiology. Despite the vast amount of research, the molecular details of many aspects of plastid biology remains limited. Plastids possess their own high-copy number genome known as the plastome. Manipulation of the plastid genome has been developed as an alternative way to developing transgenic plants for various biotechnological applications. High-copy number of the plastome, site-specific integration of transgenes through homologous recombination, and potential to express proteins at high levels (>70% of total soluble proteins has been reported in some cases) are some of the technologies being developed. Additionally, plastids are inherited maternally, providing a natural gene containment system, and do not follow Mendelian laws of inheritance, allowing each individual member of the progeny of a transplastomic line to uniformly express transgene(s). Both algal and higher plant chloroplast transformation has been demonstrated, and with the ability to be propagated either in bioreactors or in the field, both systems are well suited for scale up of production. The manipulation of chloroplast genes is also essential for many approaches that attempt to increase biomass accumulation or re-routing metabolic pathways for biofortification, food and fuel production. This includes metabolic engineering for lipid production, adapting the light harvesting apparatus to improve solar conversion efficiencies and engineering means of suppressing photorespiration in crop species, which range from the introduction of artificial carbon concentrating mechanisms, or those pre-existing elsewhere in nature, to bypassing ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase entirely. The purpose of this eBook is to provide a compilation of the latest research on various aspects of plastid biology including basic biology, biopharming, metabolic engineering, bio-fortification, stress physiology, and biofuel production.

Genetic Engineering Its Place in Plant Breeding

With greater knowledge of the structure and regulation of genes and their protein products associated with plant system such as photosynthesis and nitrogen fixation comes the possibility that efficiencies of plant processes may be ...

Author: W. L. Gerlach

Publisher:

ISBN:

Category:

Page:

View: 753

With greater knowledge of the structure and regulation of genes and their protein products associated with plant system such as photosynthesis and nitrogen fixation comes the possibility that efficiencies of plant processes may be manipulated. The means by which gene products are directed to cellular locations e.g. chloroplasts etc., is also being determined. The genetic changes which are made to plants by molecular biology are specific and defined. Adverse pleiotropic effects on plant phenotype have not been reported in recorded examples. Requirements for containment during testing of tansformed plants ensures that effects of newly introduced genes are carefully assessed. [Authors' abstract].

Plant Biotechnology and Agriculture

biological gene containment in oilseed rape (Brassica napus L). In M. J. Oliver & Y. Li (Eds.), Gene containment. Ames: Wiley. ... Alteration of hormone levels in transgenic tobacco plants overexpressing the rice homeobox gene OSH1.

Author: Arie Altman

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 0123814677

Category: Science

Page: 624

View: 247

As the oldest and largest human intervention in nature, the science of agriculture is one of the most intensely studied practices. From manipulation of plant gene structure to the use of plants for bioenergy, biotechnology interventions in plant and agricultural science have been rapidly developing over the past ten years with immense forward leaps on an annual basis. This book begins by laying the foundations for plant biotechnology by outlining the biological aspects including gene structure and expression, and the basic procedures in plant biotechnology of genomics, metabolomics, transcriptomics and proteomics. It then focuses on a discussion of the impacts of biotechnology on plant breeding technologies and germplasm sustainability. The role of biotechnology in the improvement of agricultural traits, production of industrial products and pharmaceuticals as well as biomaterials and biomass provide a historical perspective and a look to the future. Sections addressing intellectual property rights and sociological and food safety issues round out the holistic discussion of this important topic. Includes specific emphasis on the inter-relationships between basic plant biotechnologies and applied agricultural applications, and the way they contribute to each other Provides an updated review of the major plant biotechnology procedures and techniques, their impact on novel agricultural development and crop plant improvement Takes a broad view of the topic with discussions of practices in many countries

Containment of GM Plant Viruses Being Developed as Gene Technology Vectors

Containment of GM Plant Viruses Being Developed as Gene Technology Vectors

Author: Belinda Phillipson

Publisher:

ISBN: 9780717661565

Category:

Page: 28

View: 752

Containment of GM Plant Viruses Being Developed as Gene Technology Vectors

Phytoremediation and Rhizoremediation

New measures have been added aimed at containment and/or mitigation, go to 2 2. Decreasing gene flow 2a. The plant has added genes, not in the parent, enhancing containment, go to 3 2b. The plant has added genes, not present in the ...

Author: Martina Mackova

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1402049994

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 300

View: 939

This volume represents an excellent description of the hottest topics in the field of phyto- and rhizoremediation. The book shows especially the importance of cooperation between plant and microorganisms, there is practically no phytoremediation without rhizoremediation. Newest approaches based on methods of molecular biology and genetic engineering are described, as well as plant science achievements.

Political Ecologies of Genetic Pollution Containment

Author: Dustin R. Mulvaney

Publisher:

ISBN:

Category:

Page: 486

View: 110


Federal Register

Plants . P2 physical containment + an EK2 host - vector or tion of recombinant DNA's between containment + an EK1 host - vector or P3 + EK1 shall be ... product of closely linked plant genes , III - A - 2 - a- ( 1 ) - ( a ) - ( 3 ) .

Author:

Publisher:

ISBN:

Category: Delegated legislation

Page:

View: 532