Preventive Strikes

Women, Precancer, and Prophylactic Surgery Ilana Löwy. ILANA LÖWY
PREVENTIVE STRIKES Women , Precancer , and Prophylactic Surgery
Preventive Strikes This page intentionally left blank Preventive Strikes Women,.
Front Cover.

Author: Ilana Löwy

Publisher: JHU Press

ISBN: 080189364X

Category: Health & Fitness

Page: 328

View: 512

Modern scientific tools can identify a genetic predisposition to cancer before any disease is detectable. Some women will never develop breast or ovarian cancer, but they nevertheless must decide, as a result of genetic testing, whether to have their breasts and ovaries removed to avoid the possibility of disease. The striking contrast between the sophistication of diagnosis and the crudeness of preventive surgery forms the basis of historian Ilana Löwy's important study. Löwy traces the history of prophylactic amputations through a century of preventive treatment and back to a long tradition of surgical management of gynecological problems. In the early twentieth century, surgeons came to believe that removing precancerous lesions -- a term difficult to define even today -- averted the danger of malignancy. This practice, Löwy finds, later led to surgical interventions for women with a hereditary predisposition to cancer but no detectable disease. Richly detailed stories of patients and surgeons in the United States, France, and the United Kingdom allow Löwy to compare the evolution of medical thought and practice -- and personal choice -- in these different cultures. Preventive Strikes aims to improve our understanding of professional, social, and cultural responses to cancer in the twenty-first century and to inform our reflections about how values are incorporated into routine medical practices. -- Iona Heath

Israel s Attack on Osiraq

Author: Peter S. Ford

Publisher:

ISBN: 9781423522317

Category:

Page: 79

View: 423

Twenty-three years ago, Israeli fighter pilots destroyed the Osiraq nuclear reactor and made a profound statement about global nuclear proliferation. In light of the recent preventive regime change in Iraq, a review of this strike reveals timely lessons for future counterproliferation actions. Using old, new, and primary source evidence, this thesis examines Osiraq for lessons from a preventive attack on a non-conventional target. Before attacking Osiraq, Israeli policymakers attempted diplomatic coercion to delay Iraq's nuclear development. Concurrent with diplomatic actions, Israeli planners developed a state of the art military plan to destroy Osiraq. Finally, Israeli leaders weathered the international storm after the strike. The thesis examines Israeli decisionmaking for each of these phases. The thesis draws two conclusions. First, preventive strikes are valuable primarily for two purposes: buying time and gaining international attention. Second, the strike provided a one-time benefit for Israel. Subsequent strikes will be less effective due to dispersed/hardened nuclear targets and limited intelligence.

Conflict After the Cold War

All of the present nuclear countries went through both stages , yet until Israel
struck Iraq ' s nuclear facility in June of 1981 no one had launched a preventive
strike . A number of reasons combined may account for the reluctance of states to
 ...

Author: Richard K. Betts

Publisher: Pearson College Division

ISBN:

Category: Political Science

Page: 654

View: 445

In the Nevada desert, an experiment has gone horribly wrong. A cloud of nanoparticles—micro-robots—has escaped from the laboratory. This cloud is self-sustaining and self-reproducing. It is intelligent and learns from experience. For all practical purposes, it is alive. It has been programmed as a predator. It is evolving swiftly, becoming more deadly with each passing hour. Every attempt to destroy it has failed. And we are the prey.

JAC

strike strategy , then we have to consider questions about the efficacy of the
strategy as well as its theoretical and legal status . Three chapters that consider
preventive strikes in strategic and policy terms address this need . Political
scientist ...

Author:

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Category: Composition (Language arts)

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View: 427


The Use of Force

preventive strike would seem to be most promising during the first stage of
nuclear development . A state could strike without fearing that the country it
attacked would return a nuclear blow . But would one strike so hard as to destroy
the very ...

Author: Robert J. Art

Publisher: University Press of Amer

ISBN:

Category: Political Science

Page: 608

View: 798


The Future of Arms Control Pt IV

A pre - emptive strike is launched preventive strike would seem to be most by one
state to blunt an attack that another promising during the first stage of nuclear
state is presumably preparing to launch . development . A state could strike ...

Author: Farooq Hussain

Publisher:

ISBN:

Category: Arms control

Page: 30

View: 214


The Spread of Nuclear Weapons

A pre - emptive strike is launched preventive strike would seem to be most by one
state to blunt an attack that another promising during the first stage of nuclear
state is presumably preparing to launch . development . A state could strike ...

Author: Kenneth Neal Waltz

Publisher:

ISBN:

Category: Armes nucléaires

Page: 32

View: 673


Israel s Attack on Osiraq

Author: Peter S. Ford

Publisher:

ISBN: 9781423522317

Category:

Page: 79

View: 111

Twenty-three years ago, Israeli fighter pilots destroyed the Osiraq nuclear reactor and made a profound statement about global nuclear proliferation. In light of the recent preventive regime change in Iraq, a review of this strike reveals timely lessons for future counterproliferation actions. Using old, new, and primary source evidence, this thesis examines Osiraq for lessons from a preventive attack on a non-conventional target. Before attacking Osiraq, Israeli policymakers attempted diplomatic coercion to delay Iraq's nuclear development. Concurrent with diplomatic actions, Israeli planners developed a state of the art military plan to destroy Osiraq. Finally, Israeli leaders weathered the international storm after the strike. The thesis examines Israeli decisionmaking for each of these phases. The thesis draws two conclusions. First, preventive strikes are valuable primarily for two purposes: buying time and gaining international attention. Second, the strike provided a one-time benefit for Israel. Subsequent strikes will be less effective due to dispersed/hardened nuclear targets and limited intelligence.

The Polish Quarterly of International Affairs

In others , however , he justifies his claims invoking precisely the non - legal
arguments ( e . g . when suggesting the necessity of accepting the concept of
preventive strikes , the author refers primarily to the scale of the possible
consequences ...

Author:

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ISBN:

Category: Europe

Page:

View: 739


This World

Retaliatory attacks linked to previous terrorist acts are easier to justify legally and
morally than preventive measures ... These bases and support areas may be
attacked in preventive strikes , much as an army attacks an enemy ' s staging
areas ...

Author:

Publisher:

ISBN:

Category: Economics

Page:

View: 898


Foreign Affairs

Under such rare circumstances , it is widely viewed that a state enjoys the right to
strike before it is certain to be struck . ... There are some precedents for
preventive strikes , such as Israel ' s attack on Iraq ' s Osirak nuclear complex in
1981 or ...

Author:

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Category: International relations

Page:

View: 517


The Israel Journal of Foreign Affairs

Waltz points to the possibility of an effective preventive strike taking place against
an early - stage nuclear program , but ... Sagan ascribes to preventive strikes a
higher probability for the following reasons : the focus on warfare makes military ...

Author:

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Category: Israel

Page:

View: 632


First Strike Stability

Part of the task of intelligence is to provide warning that an attacker may strike ,
but before the attacker is irrevocably ... not to be the first to use nuclear weapons ,
and that the concept of preventive strikes does not exist in contemporary Soviet ...

Author: Stephen J. Cimbala

Publisher: Praeger

ISBN:

Category: History

Page: 213

View: 693

Preceded by over 40 years of peace and stability, the Cold War ended in a climate of upheaval and uncertainty. This volume addresses the political and military vacuum created by the lifting of the Iron Curtain and offers a detailed exploration of a vital problem of military uncertainty. Cimbala clarifies the bargain that superpowers and their allies made in regard to nuclear weapons and command systems and provides enhanced understandings of the concept and practice of nuclear deterrence and first strike stability in a post-Cold War world.

MR

In the case of nonstate terrorist organizations , however , the number of
impediments to U . S . preventive and preemptive strikes is substantially less ,
especially if the targets can be clearly identified as being involved in WMD -
related activities ...

Author:

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Category:

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View: 498


Intervention

Also , preventive attacks can lead to a larger conflict - a limited attack on North
Korean nuclear facilities could trigger a ... conflict , possibly including the use by
North Korea of unconventional capabilities not eliminated in a preventive strike .

Author: Richard N. Haass

Publisher: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace

ISBN:

Category: Political Science

Page: 295

View: 250

"The first edition of Intervention was selected by Choice as one of the outstanding academic books of 1995. This revised edition includes all the original material - and contains a new Afterword with lessons drawn from the most important recent U.S. military interventions: Bosnia, Haiti, the 1996 Taiwan Straits crisis, the summer 1998 bombing of a terrorist camp in Afghanistan and an alleged chemical weapons factory in Sudan, Operation Desert Fox (Iraq), and Kosovo."--BOOK JACKET.Title Summary field provided by Blackwell North America, Inc. All Rights Reserved

International Affairs

We have mentioned preventive strikes above ; the counter - proliferation parlance
distinguishes two categories of them : prevention per se , that is a classical
preventive strike and preemption that Americans interpret as a preventive strike ...

Author:

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Category: World politics

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The Search for WMD

He has also concluded : “ First , future preventive strikes against nuclear targets
will be less successful . Other nations seeking a nuclear option also have learned
valuable lessons from the strike on Osiraq : dispersal and redundancy of ...

Author: Dalhousie University. Centre for Foreign Policy Studies

Publisher: Halifax, N.S. : Dalhousie University, Centre for Foreign Policy Studies

ISBN:

Category: Political Science

Page: 406

View: 973

"This is the third volume of the Centre for Foreign Policy Studies' highly acclaimed and well received issue-and-debate series addressing contemporary topics in security and defence studies. Twenty-five scholars and policy-makers respond to Michael Friend's intriguing article about the search for WMD in Iraq. Even prior to the 2nd Iraqi war, non-proliferation has been the foremost concern discussed throughout international diplomacy. From the treaties we sign to control it, to the intelligence we use to verify it, to the pre-emptive actions we take to prevent it, the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction has become the foremost threat to international peace and stability. The contributors to this volume debate the merits of arms control treaties, address the short-comings and increased requirements of the intelligence community, and address whether a viable international system can be founded upon a doctrine of pre-emptive war. The result is an informative and policy relevant contribution to the foremost security issue of the new security environment"--Provided by publisher.

USSR Report

17 When they told him that the emphasis on a preventive strike was contrary to
U.S. national policy , he replied : " That does not matter to me . It is my policy and I
will carry it out . " 18 It is no coincidence that the authors of a well - known U.S. ...

Author:

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Category: Soviet Union

Page:

View: 156


Proceedings of the Pugwash Conference on Science and World Affairs

An Air Force study , The Coming National Crisis , for example , in August 1953
noted that the Soviet nuclear threat was growing to an unmanageable level , and
suggested that the United States resort to preventive attacks . The issue was ...

Author:

Publisher:

ISBN:

Category: Disarmament

Page:

View: 729


Proceedings of the United States Naval Institute

Complete certainty raises the bar use its strategic bombers to make preventive
attacks on terrorists in the so high a state almost never would be able to act future
. when a threat appears to exists , and such a requirement would not sufficiently ...

Author: United States Naval Institute

Publisher:

ISBN:

Category: Marine engineering

Page:

View: 567