The Political Psychology of War Rape

I was interested in finding out whether the war rapes could be said to have had
any symbolic impact on gender relations ... of a given person who had suffered
wartime rape, it is vital to understand the societal context in which that person

Author: Inger Skjelsbæk

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1136620923

Category: HISTORY

Page: 192

View: 262

This book provides a conceptual framework for understanding war rape and its impact, through empirical examination of the case of Bosnia. Providing a contextual understanding of sexual violence in war, and situating Bosnian war rape in relation to subsequent conflicts, the book offers a methodological outline of how sexual violence in war can be studied from a political-psychological perspective. It presents empirical findings from the field that show what war rape can entail in the aftermath of armed conflict for victims and their communities. Through its comprehensive approach to Bosnian experiences, the volume expands the conceptualization of victimhood and challenges the assumption that sexual violence is a particularly difficult theme to study because of victim silence. Rather, the author demonstrates there are many voices that can provide insight and understandings of war rape and its impact without having to compromise the safety and privacy of individual victims. Finally, the book shows the ways in which individual experiences of war rape are shaped by national and international discourses on gender, sexuality and politics. This book will be of interest to students of political psychology, war and conflict studies, European politics, ethnic conflict, politics and IR in general.

Epidemics and War The Impact of Disease on Major Conflicts in History

The impacts of the HIV/AIDS pandemic on developed nations such as the United
States were initially viewed through the ... have occurred in developing nations,
often in the context of war through heterosexual activities that included rape and

Author: Rebecca M. Seaman

Publisher: ABC-CLIO

ISBN: 1440852251

Category: History

Page: 340

View: 789

Through its coverage of 19 epidemics associated with a broad range of wars across time and place that blends medical knowledge, demographics, and geographic and medical information with historical and military insights, this book reveals the complex relationship between epidemics and wars throughout history. • Provides readers with a broad understanding of the relationship between disease and epidemics and their impact upon (and by) wars • Helps non-medical professionals grasp some of the important elements of specific epidemics—such as disease vectors and common factors assisting diffusion—through explanations in easily understood language • Blends the perspective from humanistic and social science studies with critical information from science on topics that have continually impacted nations and societies over the ages • Clarifies the confusing details of similar yet different diseases for readers without medical or scientific backgrounds

The Body of War

9 TROUBLES WITH THE VICTIM In her analysis of rapes of women in Bosnia
and Croatia, Rhonda Cope- Ion points out that "rape takes many forms, occurs in
many contexts, and has different repercussions for different victims" (1993, 213).

Author: Dubravka Žarkov

Publisher: Duke University Press

ISBN: 9780822339663

Category: Social Science

Page: 286

View: 935

DIVExamines how notions of femininity and masculinity and heterosexual norms produced ethnicity in the disintegration of former Yugoslavia and also looks at how words and images created by the media are just as influential as violent practices in constructin/div

Forgetting Children Born of War

Although there is no recognition in the international children's human rights
regime that children born of wartime rape ... I begin by discussing how the
production of babies through sexual violence and exploitation functions as both a
strategy of war and as an unintended side effect of ... such violence in wartime
and postwar societies, positioning Bosnia's children of war rape in the context of
this broader, ...

Author: Charli Carpenter

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 0231522304

Category: Political Science

Page: 304

View: 418

Sexual violence and exploitation occur in many conflict zones, and the children born of such acts face discrimination, stigma, and infanticide. Yet the massive transnational network of organizations working to protect war-affected children has, for two decades, remained curiously silent on the needs of this vulnerable population. Focusing specifically on the case of Bosnia-Herzegovina, R. Charli Carpenter questions the framing of atrocity by human rights organizations and the limitations these narratives impose on their response. She finds that human rights groups set their agendas according to certain grievances-the claims of female rape victims or the complaints of aggrieved minorities, for example-and that these concerns can overshadow the needs of others. Incorporating her research into a host of other conflict zones, Carpenter shows that the social construction of rights claims is contingent upon the social construction of wrongs. According to Carpenter, this pathology prevents the full protection of children born of war.

The Oxford Handbook of Gender War and the Western World since 1600

their families, and communities.11 Matthias Bjørnlund contended that sexual
violence perpetrated during the Armenian ... a group, the theoretical construction
of rape as potentially genocidal is most often justified by examination of its
destructive effects on individuals ... In an earlier study, Buss contended that the
context of ethnically defined war and genocide—as was the case with the former
Yugoslavia ...

Author: Karen Hagemann

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199948720

Category: Social Science

Page: 640

View: 307

To date, the history of military and war has focused predominantly on men as historical agents, disregarding gender and its complex interrelationships with war and the military. The Oxford Handbook of Gender, War, and the Western World since 1600 investigates how conceptions of gender have contributed to the shaping of war and the military and were transformed by them. Covering the major periods in warfare since the seventeenth century, the Handbook focuses on Europe and the long-term processes of colonization and empire-building in the Americas, Asia, Africa and Australia. Thirty-two essays written by leading international scholars explore the cultural representations of war and the military, war mobilization, and war experiences at home and on the battle front. Essays address the gendered aftermath and memories of war, as well as gendered war violence. Essays also examine movements to regulate and prevent warfare, the consequences of participation in the military for citizenship, and challenges to ideals of Western military masculinity posed by female, gay, and lesbian soldiers and colonial soldiers of color. The Oxford Handbook of Gender, War, and the Western World since 1600 offers an authoritative account of the intricate relationships between gender, warfare, and military culture across time and space.

Ideologies of Forgetting

—Coomaraswamy, Common Grounds Before we can understand the role rape
played in the Vietnam War or the reasons and means by ... Within the global and
historical contexts of warfare, however, women's sexual abuse by soldiers is not
a new phenomenon. ... However, the effect of war on women has changed
dramatically as warfare in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries has become
total war.

Author: Gina Marie Weaver

Publisher: SUNY Press

ISBN: 1438430000

Category: Social Science

Page: 216

View: 325

First book to study rape and sexual abuse of Vietnamese women by U.S. soldiers during the Vietnam War.

The Aftermath

In the context of war , rape , both in its aims and its effects , perhaps more than
any other act of violence perpetrated by one individual against another ,
highlights the political intention of interpersonal violence . Nordstrom ( 1991 )
uses the term ...

Author: Sheila Meintjes

Publisher: Zed Books


Category: Social Science

Page: 258

View: 887

What happens to women in the aftermath of war? This text asserts that for women there is no aftermath. It asks how transitions from war to peace and from authoritarian to democratic regimes can become opportunities for real social change.

The Roots of Morality

How male-male competition can be disregarded in this context is startling and
inexplicable. ... Though they may take place in the context of war — and rape is a
notably prime act in this respect — they are epiphenomenal to war itself.

Author: Maxine Sheets-Johnstone

Publisher: Penn State Press

ISBN: 9780271048277

Category: Philosophy


View: 376

Sex Crimes Oxford Bibliographies Online Research Guide

Rape became a classified as a war crime during the Bosnian War, and this is one
of the first assessments of rape in that context. In particular, see Ruth ... 54-72),
which is an excellent analysis of the effects of rape during wartime. Sexually ...

Author: Karen Terry

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199805784


Page: 26

View: 563

This ebook is a selective guide designed to help scholars and students of criminology find reliable sources of information by directing them to the best available scholarly materials in whatever form or format they appear from books, chapters, and journal articles to online archives, electronic data sets, and blogs. Written by a leading international authority on the subject, the ebook provides bibliographic information supported by direct recommendations about which sources to consult and editorial commentary to make it clear how the cited sources are interrelated related. A reader will discover, for instance, the most reliable introductions and overviews to the topic, and the most important publications on various areas of scholarly interest within this topic. In criminology, as in other disciplines, researchers at all levels are drowning in potentially useful scholarly information, and this guide has been created as a tool for cutting through that material to find the exact source you need. This ebook is a static version of an article from Oxford Bibliographies Online: Criminology, a dynamic, continuously updated, online resource designed to provide authoritative guidance through scholarship and other materials relevant to the study and practice of criminology. Oxford Bibliographies Online covers most subject disciplines within the social science and humanities, for more information visit

Love and War

That brings us to the third factor, which is rarely made explicit in discussions of
male rape victims in contexts of hazing, prison, or war— namely, misogyny. To
make a man into a woman by raping him does not merely flip him over to the
other ...

Author: Tom Digby

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 0231538405

Category: Philosophy

Page: 240

View: 583

Ideas of masculinity and femininity become sharply defined in war-reliant societies, resulting in a presumed enmity between men and women. This so-called "battle of the sexes" is intensified by the use of misogyny to encourage men and boys to conform to the demands of masculinity. These are among Tom Digby's fascinating insights shared in Love and War, which describes the making and manipulation of gender in militaristic societies and the sweeping consequences for men and women in their personal, romantic, sexual, and professional lives. Drawing on cross-cultural comparisons and examples from popular media, including sports culture, the rise of "gonzo" and "bangbus" pornography, and "internet trolls," Digby describes how the hatred of women and the suppression of empathy are used to define masculinity, thereby undermining relations between women and men—sometimes even to the extent of violence. Employing diverse philosophical methodologies, he identifies the cultural elements that contribute to heterosexual antagonism, such as an enduring faith in male force to solve problems, the glorification of violent men who suppress caring emotions, the devaluation of men's physical and emotional lives, an imaginary gender binary, male privilege premised on the subordination of women, and the use of misogyny to encourage masculine behavior. Digby tracks the "collateral damage" of this disabling misogyny in the lives of both men and women, but ends on a hopeful note. He ultimately finds the link between war and gender to be dissolving in many societies: war is becoming slowly de-gendered, and gender is becoming slowly de-militarized.

Supranational Criminal Prosecution of Sexual Violence

3.3 Elements common to war crimes in non-international armed conflict The
elements which apply to all war crimes in internal armed conflicts are the
following two: (1) the conduct took place in the context of and was associated
with an armed ...

Author: Anne-Marie de Brouwer

Publisher: Intersentia nv

ISBN: 9050955339

Category: Law

Page: 570

View: 996

This study assesses the supranational criminal prosecution of sexual violence, notably whether supranational criminal law and procedure are adequate from the perspective of victims of sexual violence.

Sexual Violence in Colombia Instrument of war

Woman from Catatumbo, Norte de Santander Impact on the lives of women
General impact As has been stated, ... who are victims of sexual violence varies
from woman to woman and depends on a large number of factors, including
context, ...

Author: Paula San Pedro

Publisher: Oxfam

ISBN: 1848146000



View: 782

War Or Health

hardly any rapes of white women are reported to have been committed by the
armies of the north or the south.27 Thus while ... 28 One of the war - strategic
functions evoked in this context lies in the effects which rape has on the male
enemy .

Author: Ikke Taipale

Publisher: Zed Books


Category: History

Page: 652

View: 281

This major new reader has been put together by Physicians for Social Responsibility in Finland, a member of IPPNW, the International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War, the recipient of the Nobel Prize in 1985. Comprising 70 articles, specially commissioned for this volume and written by leading authorities in their field, it provides an unusually wide-ranging examination of the interface between warfare and human health and society. In a world where the post-cold war era has proved a profound disappointment as regards any diminution in the incidence of armed conflict, this up-to-date and comprehensive source book will prove invaluable to health professionals and social scientists as well as those active in human rights, peace and development.

Surviving Sexual Violence

This is true in the case of childhood sexual abuse, adult rape, sexual assault,
sexual harassment, sexual violence by a partner, sex trafficking, gang rape, and
rape in the context of war. In each instance, at least one other individual has
chosen ...

Author: Thema Bryant-Davis

Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield

ISBN: 144220639X

Category: Political Science

Page: 372

View: 872

Explains the range of different sexual violations, from harassment in the workplace and marital rape to sexual violence in the military and childhood sexual abuse; and offers tips from experts in the field on various modes of recovery including mind-body practices, psychoeducation, spirituality/religion, and journaling.

Wartime Rape

Gillian Mezey — Rape in War, in: 5 Journal of Forensic Psychiatry (1994), pp. ...
and Psychiatric Effects of Violence Committed Against Women During the War in
Bosnia and Herzegovina 1992 — 1995, ... with Impunity, Women's eNews, 27
April 2003,

Author: Stefan Kirchner

Publisher: GRIN Verlag

ISBN: 3640212592

Category: Administration of justice

Page: 262

View: 987

Document from the year 2008 in the subject Law - European and International Law, Intellectual Properties, Universite Paris-Sorbonne (Paris IV), 81 entries in the bibliography, language: English, comment: The author is admitted to the bar in Germany and specializes in international law and human rights. He currently teaches at the University of Gottingen. The boolk is based on a presentation given by the author at Sorbonne University, Paris, and includes a large collection of background materials.The author is admitted to the bar in Germany and specializes in international law and human rights. He currently teaches at the University of Gottingen. The boolk is based on a presentation given by the author at Sorbonne University, Paris, and includes a large collection of background materials., abstract: About 5.4 million people have been killed in the wars in the Democratic Republic of Congo (D.R.C.), the former Zaire. 45,000 die every month and hundreds of thousands of women have been raped here in recent years. Wartime rapes are anything but new and have been employed not only to terrorize the population but also as weapon of genocide in Rwanda, Bosnia and Darfur. The Eastern Congolese provinces of North and South Kivu have been affected by particular gruesome acts of violence and thousands of victims suffer from rape-induced fistulae, ruptures of the walls which separate the victim's vagina from her rectum. According to UN staff and doctors in the region, all armed groups in the region are involved in rapes and despite the 2002 Pretoria Accord which put an official end to the war, attacks and rapes continue to this very day. Many survivors are forced out of their homes and their families abandoned and left to fend for themselves. Therefore, apart from medical treatment and psychological counseling, there is a strong demand for justice. But due to the weak position of women in Congolese society, justice is much harder to get by than medical treatment. Although the C"

Sexual Violence in Conflict and Post Conflict Societies

International Agendas and African Contexts Doris Buss, Joanne Lebert, Blair
Rutherford, Donna Sharkey, Obijiofor ... examine the rape of women, girls, men,
and boys and place this rape within a broader context: that of the war crime of ...

Author: Doris Buss

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317679970

Category: Social Science

Page: 290

View: 981

This book brings together a unique blend of researchers, civil society and community activists all working on different aspects of conflict sexual violence on the African continent. The contributions included here offer a detailed reading of the social and political climate within which some patterns of sexual violence unfold, and the increased policy and institutional responses shaping post-conflict environments. The chapters are organized around three main themes: the continuities between conflict sexual violence and post-conflict insecurity; the troubling category of "victim" and its representation in post-conflict settings; and the international contexts – such as international programming, aid and justice interventions – that shape how conflict sexual violence is addressed. The authors come to the topic from various academic disciplines - anthropology, gender studies, law, and psychology - and from different non-academic contexts, including civil society organizations in affected regions, and policy and activist organizations in the Global North. Collectively the chapters in this volume offer complex and detailed analysis of some of the debates and dynamics shaping contemporary understandings of conflict sexual violence, highlighting, in turn, new insights and emerging topics on which further research and advocacy is needed.

Defining Rape Emerging Obligations for States Under International Law

International Perspective 1.1 Background The United Nations (UN) Secretary-
General has emphasised that the elimination of ... challenges of our times.2 Rape
, as a crime that principally affects women and its prevalence in all states,
cultures and contexts, whether in an ... The work involves exposing such myths
as rape being an inevitable by-product of war or an expression of local cultural
traditions, ...

Author: Maria Eriksson

Publisher: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers

ISBN: 9004202633

Category: Law

Page: 613

View: 422

The crime of rape has been prevalent in all contexts, whether committed during armed conflict or in peacetime, and has largely been characterised by a culture of impunity. International law, through its branches of international human rights law, international humanitarian law and international criminal law, has increasingly condemned such violence and is progressively obliging states to prevent rape, whether committed by a state agent or a private actor.

Women and Wars

... a context-specific accomplishment rather than established once and for all, the
context of para/military rape will be one ... sense of what happens to women
during wars — of the effects of war's violence and disruption on women's daily
lives, ...

Author: Carol Cohn

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 0745660665

Category: Social Science

Page: 256

View: 308

Where are the women? In traditional historical and scholarly accounts of the making and fighting of wars, women are often nowhere to be seen. With few exceptions, war stories are told as if men were the only ones who plan, fight, are injured by, and negotiate ends to wars. As the pages of this book tell, though, those accounts are far from complete. Women can be found at every turn in the (gendered) phenomena of war. Women have participated in the making, fighting, and concluding of wars throughout history, and their participation is only increasing at the turn of the 21st century. Women experience war in multiple ways: as soldiers, as fighters, as civilians, as caregivers, as sex workers, as sexual slaves, refugees and internally displaced persons, as anti-war activists, as community peace-builders, and more. This book at once provides a glimpse into where women are in war, and gives readers the tools to understood women’s (told and untold) war experiences in the greater context of the gendered nature of global social and political life.

International Human Rights Symposium

147 The propaganda had a clear effect on the perpetrators of sexual violence
during the genocide . ... BROWNMILLER , AGAINST OUR Will : MEN , WOMEN
AND RAPE 347 ( 1975 ) ( analyzing the history of rape in the context of war ) .




Category: Human rights

Page: 228

View: 555

Sex and Gender Crimes in the New International Law

7 Note that the term “rape” in this context refers to all violent sex crimes and not
only rape in its classic meaning. ... See Brook Sari Moshan, “Women, War, and
Words: The Gender Component in the Permanent International Criminal Court's ...

Author: Alona Hagay-Frey

Publisher: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers

ISBN: 9004189122

Category: Law

Page: 182

View: 268

Adapted from the author's thesis (LLM)---Universitat Tel-Aviv, 2009.