Structural Impact

10.38 Tam, L. L. and Calladine, C. R., Inertia and strain rate effects in a simple
plate structure under impact loading, International Journal of Impact Engineering,
11(3), 349–77 (1991). 10.39 Zhang, T. G. and Yu, T. X., A note on a “velocity ...

Author: Norman Jones

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139503332

Category: Science


View: 792

Structural Impact is concerned with the behaviour of structures and components subjected to large dynamic, impact and explosive loads which produce inelastic deformations. It is of interest for safety calculations, hazard assessments and energy absorbing systems throughout industry. The first five chapters introduce the rigid plastic methods of analysis for the static behaviour and the dynamic response of beams, plates and shells. The influence of transverse shear, rotatory inertia, finite displacements and dynamic material properties are introduced and studied in some detail. Dynamic progressive buckling, which develops in several energy absorbing systems, and the phenomenon of dynamic plastic buckling are introduced. Scaling laws are discussed which are important for relating the response of small-scale experimental tests to the dynamic behaviour of full-scale prototypes. This text is invaluable to undergraduates, graduates and professionals learning about the behaviour of structures subjected to large impact, dynamic and blast loadings producing an inelastic response.

Crashworthiness of Transportation Systems Structural Impact and Occupant Protection

Abramowicz, W. and Jones, N. (1984) Dynamic axial crushing of square tubes,
International Journal of Impact ... Jones, N. (1995) Quasi-static analysis of
structural impact damage, Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 33, 151-177
. Jones ...

Author: Jorge A.C. Ambrósio

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401157960

Category: Mathematics

Page: 631

View: 177

A systematic treatment of current crashworthiness practice in the automotive, railroad and aircraft industries. Structural, exterior and interior design, occupant biomechanics, seat and restraint systems are dealt with, taking account of statistical data, current regulations and state-of-the-art design tool capabilities. Occupant kinematics and biomechanics are reviewed, leading to a basic understanding of human tolerance to impact and of the use of anthropometric test dummies and mathematical modelling techniques. Different types of restraining systems are described in terms of impact biomechanics. The material and structural behaviour of vehicle components is discussed in relation to crash testing. A variety of commonly used techniques for simulating occupants and structures are presented, in particular the use of multibody dynamics, finite element methods and simplified macro-elements, in the context of design tools of increasing complexity, which can be used to model both vehicles and occupants. Audience: An excellent reference for researchers, engineers, students and all other professionals involved in crashworthiness work.

Formulas for Mechanical and Structural Shock and Impact

Held, M. Blast moments of detonating HE charges in the near field. Proceedings
of the Fourth Asia-Pacific Conference on Shock and Impact Loads on Structures.
Singapore, November 2001. Henrych, J. The Dynamics of Explosion and Its Use.

Author: Gregory Szuladzinski

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781420065572

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 790

View: 444

In dealing with extreme loads on structures, simple approximations of key variables can indicate if there is a threat of collapse. The ability to determine such variables early on strongly impacts the decisions about the engineering approach to adopt. Formulas for Mechanical and Structural Shock and Impact is a self-contained and concise presentation of formulas and methodology you can use to determine dynamic response to shock loads, to help you decide on the optimal design. This book offers insight into how objects and structures respond to sudden, strong—and generally short—impulses. In our computer-oriented environment, in which structural programs are used for most large analytical tasks, engineers can still benefit from certain manual calculations and analytical methods to quickly assess the situation at hand. Exploring a range of mechanical and civil engineering applications, the text enables engineers to manually calculate what happens to structures and objects when pushed, pulled, jerked, or blasted by providing ready access to formulas required for advanced problem solving. It describes relatively simple methods of dealing with many design situations, in which simple spreadsheets or MathCad are sometimes employed. These scenarios may include: Determination of preliminary figures on the anticipated dynamic response of a system that is in an early stage of design and for which a full-scale computation is not practical Preparations for physical testing or for large-scale calculations, during which a dynamic model is generated Indirect verification of computer-generated results, to explain questionable results or guard against hidden errors Structural safety can be facilitated through the use of simple approximate solutions early in the design process, often eliminating the need for complicated and more involved solutions later. This book is a valuable companion for modern engineers who need concise and relatively easy methods of hand calculation to determine the essential variables. Without emphasizing any one particular type of structure, its scope is quite broad and applies to mechanical aspects of aeronautical, automotive, nuclear, and civil engineering, as well as those in general machine design. Stressing simplicity, the author presents the theoretical basis for manual calculations that will remain abundantly useful in the foreseeable future.

The Impact of Structural Adjustment on the Population of Africa

Cameroon will again find itself unable to implement the monetary and financial
policies necessary for structural adjustment and economic recovery , particularly
with regard to the social dimension . Moreover , the economic crisis manifests ...

Author: Aderanti Adepoju

Publisher: James Currey Publishers

ISBN: 9780852554050

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 148

View: 733

Examines the consequences for the development and utilization of human resources - Africa's main asset.

Ultimate Limit State Design of Steel Plated Structures

9 Impact Mechanics and Structural Design for Accidents 9.1 Fundamentals of
Structural Impact Mechanics Steel structures can be subjected to dynamic or
impact loads while in service . Any loading which gives rise to a time - dependent

Author: Jeom Kee Paik

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9780471486329

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 544

View: 584

Steel plated structures are important in a variety of marine and land-based applications, including ships, offshore platforms, power and chemical plants, box girder bridges and box girder cranes. The basic strength members in steel plated structures include support members (such as stiffeners and plate girders), plates, stiffened panels/grillages and box girders. During their lifetime, the structures constructed using these members are subjected to various types of loading which is for the most part operational, but may in some cases be extreme or even accidental. Ultimate Limit State Design of Steel Plated Structures reviews and describes both fundamentals and practical design procedures in this field. The derivation of the basic mathematical expressions is presented together with a thorough discussion of the assumptions and the validity of the underlying expressions and solution methods. Particularly valuable coverage in the book includes: * Serviceability and the ultimate limit state design of steel structural systems and their components * The progressive collapse and the design of damage tolerant structures in the context of marine accidents * Age related structural degradation such as corrosion and fatigue cracks Furthermore, this book is also an easily accessed design tool which facilitates learning by applying the concepts of the limit states for practice using a set of computer programs which can be downloaded. In addition, expert guidance on mechanical model test results as well as nonlinear finite element solutions, sophisticated design methodologies useful for practitioners in industries or research institutions, selected methods for accurate and efficient analyses of nonlinear behavior of steel plated structures both up to and after the ultimate strength is reached, is provided. Designed as both a textbook and a handy reference, the book is well suited to teachers and university students who are approaching the limit state design technology of steel plated structures for the first time. The book also meets the needs of structural designers or researchers who are involved in civil, marine and mechanical engineering as well as offshore engineering and naval architecture.

The Impact of Structural Adjustment on Smallholders

The general idea behind these proposals is that the debt crisis is fundamentally a
consequence of inadequate economic structures , that is , a bad arrangement of
all the parts of the economic system . Therefore , the solution to the debt crisis ...

Author: Jean-Marc Boussard

Publisher: Food & Agriculture Org.

ISBN: 9789251028667

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 81

View: 461

The Impact of Stabilization and Structural Adjustment Policies on the Rural Sector

Some concern has been expressed recently about the possible detrimental
effects on agriculture of stabilization and structural adjustment programmes
launched with the support of the International Monetary Fund ( IMF ) and the
World Bank .

Author: Emil Maria Claassen

Publisher: Food & Agriculture Org.

ISBN: 9789251028940

Category: Agriculture

Page: 219

View: 735

The Impact of European Integration on Regional Structural Change and Cohesion

structural. change. The. case. of. Bulgarian. regions. Stoyan. Totev. Introduction
Bulgaria has experienced the impact of the interacting processes of integration
and transition since the early 1990s. The economic forces and dynamics gener- ...

Author: Christiane Krieger-Boden

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134146973

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 336

View: 154

Edited by three European editors and spanning across Europe, this excellent study focuses on the effects of the European integration process on the inter-regional division of labour in both western and Eastern European countries. Using extensive empirical analysis of the changes of regional specialization over a period of two decades, observing its causes and consequences the authors show economic integration as a relocation of resources across sectors and space. The authors argue that the resulting challenge to both regional and social cohesion in the enlarged European Union may require a reorientation of cohesion policy at European, national and local levels. Disaggregated national data sets with respect to both the sectoral and spatial levels are combined with an analysis of both regional structural change and the role of foreign direct investment in this process. This book will be of great interest to post graduate students and researchers interested in international trade and regional economics as well as policy makers engaged with regional and structural changes at both a European and national level.

Structural Proteomics and Its Impact on the Life Sciences

Silman†. The concept of structural genomics (SG) arose in the mid-to-late 1990s
in both the USA and Japan, triggered by the success achieved in applying high-
throughput (HTP) sequencing methods to whole genomes. It was envisaged that

Author: Joel Sussman

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9812772057

Category: Science

Page: 572

View: 989

The role played by structural proteomics in the first decade of the 21st century is equivalent to that played by the Human Genome Project in the last decade of the 20th century. The development of high-throughput technologies that permit the solution of hundreds of 3D structures of individual proteins, proteinOCoprotein complexes and proteinOCodrug complexes, just by one laboratory in a single year, will provide a knowledge base which will change the face of structural biology. This will have an immediate influence on medicinal chemistry and molecular pharmacology, as well as an increasing impact on such disciplines as neurobiology, developmental biology, immunology and molecular medicine.This book presents a state-of-the-art overview of the structural proteomics field, ranging from policy issues related to funding and goals, through the high-throughput procedures for protein production, to the solution of the structures of proteins and higher-order entities, via a multidisciplinary approach involving molecular biology, X-ray crystallography, NMR and electron microscopy, as well as bioinformatics analysis. This is the first book to provide such a comprehensive coverage of a rapidly evolving field.

The Impact of Structural Reforms on Poverty

In the short-run it may be reasonable to suppose that changes in the activities
undertaken by households may be relatively slow (certainly compared to
changes in consumption), so that the short-run poverty impact may justifiably
assume fixed ...

Author: Neil McCulloch

Publisher: World Bank Publications


Category: Economic assistance, Domestic

Page: 41

View: 707

The Impact of Structural Adjustment Programmes on the Public Health Sector The Case of Zimbabwe

ABSTRACT Structural Adjustment Programmes of the International Monetary
Fund (IMF) and World Bank (WB) were implemented as part of aid conditionality
in Africa and Latin America since the 1980s. There is a wide range of literature ...

Author: Tsitsi Muvunzi

Publisher: Anchor Academic Publishing (aap_verlag)

ISBN: 3954891352

Category: Political Science

Page: 124

View: 859

Structural Adjustment Programmes of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and World Bank (WB) were implemented as part of aid conditionality in Africa and Latin America since the 1980s. There is a wide range of literature critical of SAPs. Several debates have focused on whether the failure of SAPs was a result of the inherent weaknesses of the IMF/ WB sponsored structural adjustment or whether it was caused by structural failures of policy implementation within the African continent. The author uses the Zimbabwean case to analyze the impact of SAPs on social service sectors, in particular the public health sector.

Guidelines for Monitoring the Impact of Structural Adjustment Programmes on the Agricultural Sector

The ceteris paribus impact on production of the exportable product is
unambiguously negative , since its price does not change while prices of both
competing products , as well as the inputs , rise . Production of the food products ,
however ...

Author: Alexander Sarris

Publisher: Food & Agriculture Org.

ISBN: 9789251028643

Category: Agriculture

Page: 78

View: 995

Assessing the Macroeconomic Impact of Structural Reforms The Case of Italy

The impact from easing EPL would, in general, be marginal. Wages would fall by
0.9 percent, more than in the long run, since the positive effects of higher demand
for Italian goods and hence for production factors would still take time to ...

Author: Lusine Lusinyan

Publisher: International Monetary Fund

ISBN: 1475575017

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 59

View: 669

Wide-ranging structural reforms are underway in Italy, aimed at addressing key bottlenecks in the product and labor markets. Our analysis, based on the IMF‘s Global Integrated Monetary and Fiscal model (GIMF), attempts to quantify the potential gains to the economy from a comprehensive package of structural reforms. We find that these gains can be sizeable. While in most cases, the reforms go in the right direction, their impact would depend on effective and timely implementation. In some areas, especially in the labor market, reforms would benefit from further strengthening. The priorities should be to strengthen competition in the non-tradable sector and make the labor market more efficient and inclusive, supported by growth-friendly fiscal reforms.

Impact Behaviour of Fibre reinforced Composite Materials and Structures

4 Impact damage - tolerant composite structural design R L SIERAKOWSKI 4.1
Introduction The introduction of continuous filament composite materials for use
as primary structural components , particularly in aircraft application , has focused

Author: S.R. Reid

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9780849308475

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 280

View: 958

Much of the early, pioneering work on the properties of composites under impact is still conceptually relevant, yet the results of many such analyses are outdated. The accuracy of these results depend specifically on the materials used (fibre, resin), interface, and method of fabrication. Development of new materials, cost effective design, and analysis and prediction of structural behaviour have all established a need for timely, wide ranging research on impact behaviour. Impact Behaviour of Fibre-Reinforced Composite Materials and Structures brings together - for the first time - state-of-the-art research from the most recent works of leading, international experts. An important new study, this book extensively investigates impact response, damage tolerance, and failure of fibre-reinforced composite materials and structure, from a number of expert viewpoints. This book explores the nature of modern polymer composites based on glass, carbon, aramid, ceramic and polymer fibres in a polymer matrix, and details various ways of analysing the impact process. Impact Behaviour of Fibre-Reinforced Composite Materials and Structures will prove itself a valuable tool for research and development engineers, structural engineers, materials scientists, designers, and students and researchers of related disciplines.

Jamaica The impact of the structural adjustment process on the agricultural sector

SECTION II : AGRICULTURAL BASELINE The agricultural sector in Jamaica
epitomizes the case for structural adjustment . By several measures , the sector
occupies an important place in the economic life of the country . Beginning with ...


Publisher: IICA Biblioteca Venezuela




View: 764

ECMT Round Tables Structural Changes in Population and Impact on Passenger Transport Report of the Eighty Eighth Round Table on Transport Economics Held in Paris on 13 14 June 1991

New categories of the population included as car ownership increases An
increase from 100 cars per thousand inhabitants in 1960 to 400 in 1990
obviously modifies the structure of users. In 1960 car ownership and use were
related to social ...

Author: European Conference of Ministers of Transport

Publisher: OECD Publishing

ISBN: 9282105342


Page: 158

View: 242

Current changes in the structure of population, whether they relate to ageing or the radical modification of social practices, are affecting the level of usage of private cars. Round Table 88 examines the scale of these changes and how public transport can respond.

The Manson Impact Structure Iowa

Structure. of. the. terrace. terrane,. Manson. impact. structure,. Iowa,. interpreted.
from. high-resolution,. seismic. reflection. data. Dean Keiswetter*, Ross Black,
and Don Steeples University of Kansas, Department of Geology, 120 Lindley Hall
, ...

Author: Christian Koeberl

Publisher: Geological Society of America

ISBN: 0813723027

Category: Science

Page: 468

View: 464

Twenty-two reports presenting results from the investigation samples of the Manson impact structure, a crater site in Iowa that was not discovered until 1992. The reports cover a great deal of ground, including geophysical studies of the crater structure, detailed mineralogical, petrological, and ge

Structures Under Shock and Impact XII

This book contains the papers presented at the twelfth International Conference
on Structures under Shock and Impact held in Kos, Greece in 2012. The earlier
meetings were held in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA in 1989, Portsmouth, UK

Author: G. Schleyer

Publisher: WIT Press

ISBN: 1845646126

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 392

View: 945

Of interest to engineers from civil, military, nuclear, offshore, aeronautical, transportation and other backgrounds, this book contains the proceedings of a well-established conference on the subject that was first held in 1989. Topics covered include: Impact and Blast Loading Characteristics; Protection of Structures from Blast Loads; Energy Absorbing Issues; Structural Crashworthiness; Hazard Mitigation and Assessment; Behaviour of Steel Structures; Behaviour of Structural Concrete; Material Response to High Rate Loading; Seismic Engineering Applications; Interaction Between Computational and Experimental Results; Innovative Materials and Material Systems; Fluid Structure Interaction.The shock and impact behaviour of structures presents challenges to researchers not only because it has obvious time-dependent aspects, but also because it is difficult to specify the external dynamic loading characteristics and to obtain the full dynamic properties of materials. It is crucial that we find ways to share the contributions and understanding that are developing from various theoretical, numerical and experimental studies, as well as investigations into material properties under dynamic loading conditions. This book helps to meet that need.

Analysis of the mechanical response of impact loaded composite sandwich structures with focus on foam core shear failure

composite sandwich structure shall describe a structure made of composite face
sheets and a polymeric foam core. Industrial practice in material selection and
manufacturing of sandwich structures differs significantly depending on the ...

Author: Tim Berend Block

Publisher: Logos Verlag Berlin GmbH

ISBN: 3832538534


Page: 237

View: 614

Sandwich structures are an economically and structurally efficient way of designing large integral composite parts. In the aerospace industry pre-impregnated face sheets and honeycomb core structures can be considered as industry standard while e.g. naval structures and wind turbine blades typically use vacuum infusion technology with polymer foam cores. Application of the less costly infusion technology in the aeronautical industry requires a thorough understanding of the damage tolerance including low velocity impact as a frequent source of damaging events. At low impact energies damage in composite foam core sandwich structures is limited to core crushing and local face sheet delaminations. Higher impact energies may initiate the competing failure modes face sheet rupture and core shear failure depending on impact, geometric and material parameters. Face sheet rupture leads to severe local damage with typically good visibility, while core shear failure leads to cracks and rear face sheet debonding of the foam core with less visibility. This work investigates the low velocity impact response of sandwich structures with carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) face sheets and a polymeric foam core using experiments at room temperature and at -55° Celsius. An analytically derived failure mode map is presented as a simple tool for design guidelines while the explicit finite element method is applied for a more detailed description of the sandwich impact process. Both models are used to analyze the impact response and describe relevant sensitivity parameters of sandwich structures.

The Impact of Structural Reforms on Wages and Employment

Author: Julius Spatz




Page: 45

View: 474