The Making of the Rape of Nanking History and Memory in Japan China and the United States

In The Making of the "Rape of Nanking" Takashi Yoshida examines how views of the Nanjing Massacre have evolved in history writing and public memory in Japan, China, and the United States.

Author: Takashi Yoshida Assistant Professor of History Western Michigan University

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 0195346211

Category: History

Page: 278

View: 921

On December 13, 1937, the Japanese army attacked and captured the Chinese capital city of Nanjing, planting the rising-sun flag atop the city's outer walls. What occurred in the ensuing weeks and months has been the source of a tempestuous debate ever since. It is well known that the Japanese military committed wholesale atrocities after the fall of the city, massacring large numbers of Chinese during the both the Battle of Nanjing and in its aftermath. Yet the exact details of the war crimes--how many people were killed during the battle? How many after? How many women were raped? Were prisoners executed? How unspeakable were the acts committed?--are the source of controversy among Japanese, Chinese, and American historians to this day. In The Making of the "Rape of Nanking" Takashi Yoshida examines how views of the Nanjing Massacre have evolved in history writing and public memory in Japan, China, and the United States. For these nations, the question of how to treat the legacy of Nanjing--whether to deplore it, sanitize it, rationalize it, or even ignore it--has aroused passions revolving around ethics, nationality, and historical identity. Drawing on a rich analysis of Chinese, Japanese, and American history textbooks and newspapers, Yoshida traces the evolving--and often conflicting--understandings of the Nanjing Massacre, revealing how changing social and political environments have influenced the debate. Yoshida suggests that, from the 1970s on, the dispute over Nanjing has become more lively, more globalized, and immeasurably more intense, due in part to Japanese revisionist history and a renewed emphasis on patriotic education in China. While today it is easy to assume that the Nanjing Massacre has always been viewed as an emblem of Japan's wartime aggression in China, the image of the "Rape of Nanking" is a much more recent icon in public consciousness. Takashi Yoshida analyzes the process by which the Nanjing Massacre has become an international symbol, and provides a fair and respectful treatment of the politically charged and controversial debate over its history.

Documents on the Rape of Nanking

Newly revised resources for understanding the Rape of Nanking

Author: Timothy Brook

Publisher: University of Michigan Press

ISBN: 9780472086627

Category: History

Page: 301

View: 820

Newly revised resources for understanding the Rape of Nanking

American Goddess at the Rape of Nanking

Meticulously researched and poignantly written , American Goddess at the Rape
of Nanking describes how a courageous missionary defied the Japanese army to
save thousands of Chinese lives — at the eventual cost of her own .

Author: Hua-ling Hu

Publisher: SIU Press

ISBN: 9780809323869

Category: Biography & Autobiography

Page: 184

View: 690

The Japanese army’s brutal four-month occupation of the city of Nanking during the 1937 Sino-Japanese War is known, for good reason, as “the rape of Nanking.” As they slaughtered an estimated three hundred thousand people, the invading soldiers raped more than twenty thousand women—some estimates run as high as eighty thousand. Hua-ling Hu presents here the amazing untold story of the American missionary Minnie Vautrin, whose unswerving defiance of the Japanese protected ten thousand Chinese women and children and made her a legend among the Chinese people she served. Vautrin, who came to be known in China as the “Living Goddess” or the “Goddess of Mercy,” joined the Foreign Christian Missionary Society and went to China during the Chinese Nationalist Revolution in 1912. As dean of studies at Ginling College in Nanking, she devoted her life to promoting Chinese women’s education and to helping the poor. At the outbreak of the war in July 1937, Vautrin defied the American embassy’s order to evacuate the city. After the fall of Nanking in December, Japanese soldiers went on a rampage of killing, burning, looting, rape, and torture, rapidly reducing the city to a hell on earth. On the fourth day of the occupation, Minnie Vautrin wrote in her diary: “There probably is no crime that has not been committed in this city today. . . . Oh, God, control the cruel beastliness of the soldiers in Nanking.” When the Japanese soldiers ordered Vautrin to leave the campus, she replied: “This is my home. I cannot leave.” Facing down the blood-stained bayonets constantly waved in her face, Vautrin shielded the desperate Chinese who sought asylum behind the gates of the college. Vautrin exhausted herself defying the Japanese army and caring for the refugees after the siege ended in March 1938. She even helped the women locate husbands and sons who had been taken away by the Japanese soldiers. She taught destitute widows the skills required to make a meager living and provided the best education her limited sources would allow to the children in desecrated Nanking. Finally suffering a nervous breakdown in 1940, Vautrin returned to the United States for medical treatment. One year later, she ended her own life. She considered herself a failure. Hu bases her biography on Vautrin’s correspondence between 1919 and 1941 and on her diary, maintained during the entire siege, as well as on Chinese, Japanese, and American eyewitness accounts, government documents, and interviews with Vautrin’s family.

The Rape Of Nanking

Susan Brownmiller, author of the landmark book Against Our Will: Men, Women
and Rape, believes that the Rape of Nanking was probably the single worst
instance of wartime rape inflicted on a civilian population with the sole exception
of ...

Author: Iris Chang

Publisher: Hachette UK

ISBN: 046502825X

Category: History

Page: 360

View: 935

The New York Times bestselling account of one of history's most brutal -- and forgotten -- massacres, when the Japanese army destroyed China's capital city on the eve of World War II In December 1937, one of the most horrific atrocities in the long annals of wartime barbarity occurred. The Japanese army swept into the ancient city of Nanking (what was then the capital of China), and within weeks, more than 300,000 Chinese civilians and soldiers were systematically raped, tortured, and murdered. In this seminal work, Iris Chang, whose own grandparents barely escaped the massacre, tells this history from three perspectives: that of the Japanese soldiers, that of the Chinese, and that of a group of Westerners who refused to abandon the city and created a safety zone, which saved almost 300,000 Chinese. Drawing on extensive interviews with survivors and documents brought to light for the first time, Iris Chang's classic book is the definitive history of this horrifying episode. "Chang vividly, methodically, records what happened, piecing together the abundant eyewitness reports into an undeniable tapestry of horror." - Adam Hochschild, Salon

The Rape of Nanking the Forgotten Holocaust of World War II

During November 1937, in the space of seven weeks Japanese troops murdered more than 300,000 Chinese civilians and soldiers. Iris Chang's examination of the incident throws into relief the fact that Japan has never apologised for it.

Author: Iris Chang

Publisher: Ishi Press

ISBN: 9784871872188

Category: Nanjing (Jiangsu Sheng, China)

Page: 332

View: 883

During November 1937, in the space of seven weeks Japanese troops murdered more than 300,000 Chinese civilians and soldiers. Iris Chang's examination of the incident throws into relief the fact that Japan has never apologised for it.

The Rape of Nanking

It documents the events, based on the author's research, leading up to the Nanking Massacre and the atrocities that were committed. The book also presents the view that the Japanese government has not done enough to redress the atrocities.

Author: Jesse Russel

Publisher: Book on Demand Limited

ISBN: 9785510658460


Page: 116

View: 293

High Quality Content by WIKIPEDIA articles! The Rape of Nanking: The Forgotten Holocaust of World War II is a bestselling 1997 non-fiction book written by Iris Chang about the 1937-1938 Nanking Massacre, the massacre and atrocities committed by the Imperial Japanese Army after it captured Nanjing, then capital of China, during the Second Sino-Japanese War. It documents the events, based on the author's research, leading up to the Nanking Massacre and the atrocities that were committed. The book also presents the view that the Japanese government has not done enough to redress the atrocities. It is one of the first major English-language books to introduce the Nanking Massacre to Western and Eastern readers alike, and has been translated into several languages.


OF LAW Historian Hata Ikuhiko said that there is " something devilish which
upsets people's minds ” in the Rape of Nanking debate.107 One obvious reason
is the ...

Author: Masahiro Yamamoto

Publisher: Greenwood Publishing Group

ISBN: 9780275969042

Category: History

Page: 352

View: 577

Drawing on English, Chinese, and Japanese sources, this study challenges the prevailing view that the Rape of Nanking was a deliberate, planned effort on the part of the Japanese military and concludes that it was instead an unfortunate tragedy of conventional warfare.

The Nanking Atrocity 1937 38

AND THE GUILT OF HISTORY Timothy Brook Nothing would be achieved by
seeking any premature escape from the guilt of history . - Radhabinod Pal There
were ...

Author: Bob Tadashi Wakabayashi

Publisher: Berghahn Books

ISBN: 9781845451806

Category: Social Science

Page: 433

View: 762

Events in Nanking during 1937-38 are the subject of a ferocious historiographical debate between Chinese & Japanese points of view. This volume seeks to debunk the myths promoted by scholars on both sides of the argument & present a revisionist view of the atrocity that complicates the picture.

The Undaunted Women of Nanking

As soon as Nanking fell, Japanese soldiers went on a rampage of killing, burning
, looting, and raping. Within a few days, Nanking was reduced to a “hell on earth.”
2 Gunshots and human wailing filled the air, corpses were piled on roads and ...

Author: Hua-ling Hu

Publisher: SIU Press

ISBN: 0809385619

Category: Biography & Autobiography

Page: 272

View: 594

During the infamous “Rape of Nanking,” a brutal military occupation of Nanking, China, that began in December 1937, it is estimated that Japanese soldiers killed between 200,000 and 300,000 Chinese and raped between 20,000 and 80,000 women. In response to the atrocities, a group of westerners organized the International Committee for the Nanking Safety Zone and attempted to shelter refugees. Among these humanitarian heroes was Minnie Vautrin, an American missionary and acting president of Ginling College. She and Tsen Shui-fang, her Chinese assistant and a trained nurse, turned the college into a refugee camp, which protected more than 10,000 women and children during the height of the ordeal. Even though both women were exhausted mentally and physically from caring for so many, they kept detailed diaries during the massacre. The Undaunted Women of Nanking juxtaposes the two women’s wartime diaries day-by-day from December 8, 1937, through March 1, 1938. Both diaries provide vital eyewitness accounts of the Rape of Nanking and are unique in their focus on the Ginling refugee camp and the sufferings of women and children. Tsen Shui-fang’s diary is the only known daily account by a Chinese national written during the crisis and not retrospectively. As such, it records a unique perspective: that of a woman grappling with feelings of anger, sorrow, and compassion as she witnesses the atrocities being committed in her war-torn country. Tsen Shui-fang’s diary has never before been published in English, and this is its first translation. Editors Hua-ling Hu and Zhang Lian-hong have added many informative annotations to the diary entries from sources including the proceedings of the Tokyo War Crimes Trial of 1946, Vautrin’s correspondence, John Rabe’s diary, and other historical documents. Also included are biographical sketches of the two women, a note on the diaries, and information about the aftermath of the tragedy, as well as maps and photos—some of which appear in print here for the first time.

The Nanking Atrocity 1937 1938

This second edition includes an extensive new introduction by the editor reflecting on the historiographical developments of the last decade, in advance of the 80th anniversary of the massacre.

Author: Bob Tadashi Wakabayashi

Publisher: Berghahn Books

ISBN: 1785335979

Category: History

Page: 496

View: 889

First published in 2007, The Nanking Atrocity remains an essential resource for understanding the massacre committed by Japanese soldiers in Nanking, China during the winter of 1937-38. Through a series of deeply considered and empirically rigorous essays, it provides a far more complex and nuanced perspective than that found in works like Iris Chang’s bestselling The Rape of Nanking. It systematically reveals the flaws and exaggerations in Chang’s book while deflating the self-exculpatory narratives that persist in Japan even today. This second edition includes an extensive new introduction by the editor reflecting on the historiographical developments of the last decade, in advance of the 80th anniversary of the massacre.

Terror in Minnie Vautrin s Nanjing

A daily account of enormous courage and unthinkable horror during the Nanjing Massacre

Author: Minnie Vautrin

Publisher: University of Illinois Press

ISBN: 0252033329

Category: Biography & Autobiography

Page: 261

View: 635

A daily account of enormous courage and unthinkable horror during the Nanjing Massacre

Language Ideology and Japanese History Textbooks

In the literature in English on Japanese history textbooks, the claim is often made
that censorship by the Ministry of Education ensures that Japanese atrocities do
not figure in the textbooks — that, for example, the Rape of Nanking is 'officially ...

Author: Christopher Barnard

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134429274

Category: Political Science

Page: 208

View: 562

The Japanese history textbook debate is one that keeps making the news, particularly with reference to claims that Japan has never 'apologised properly' for its actions between 1931 and 1945, and that it is one of the few liberal, democratic countries in which textbooks are controlled and authorised by the central government. There are frequent protests, both from within Japan and from overseas, that a biased, nationalistic history is taught in Japanese schools. This is the first time that all the authorised textbooks currently in use have been analysed using a critical discourse that is anchored firmly in the theory of 'language within society', elucidating the meanings and associated ideologies created by the language of the textbooks.

When Sorry Isn t Enough

She was “wounded 37 times with a sword for resisting a soldier who wanted to
rape her.”19 The issue raised in the lawsuit is not just money, but the sanctity of
human life. It is impossible to right the Nanking wrongs fully with reparations.

Author: Roy L. Brooks

Publisher: NYU Press

ISBN: 9780814713310

Category: Law

Page: 536

View: 499

"This anthology is a collection of essays, written by both internationally renowned and emerging scholars, and of public documents that concern claims from around the world which seek redress for human injustice"--Preface.

World War II

A journalist who became a full-time author, Chang first heard accounts of the
Sino-Japanese War and the Rape of Nanking from her parents. 943. Americans
think of World War II as beginning on December 7, 1941. . . . Europeans date it
from ...

Author: Howard Langer

Publisher: Greenwood Publishing Group

ISBN: 9780313300189

Category: History

Page: 449

View: 630

Includes numerous quotations, covering all aspects of the war, from the Allies, the Axis, and the neutrals.

A Romantic Rape of Nanking

What is the purpose of war?

Author: Jennifer Suzuki

Publisher: Createspace Independent Publishing Platform

ISBN: 9781547205745


Page: 164

View: 628

What is the purpose of war? Man in his pacifist rage has forsaken all of war's glory and magnified beyond reason all its cruelty. War enhanced the existence of the superior type of man and man in victory enjoyed the complete domination and monopoly of all the pleasures in conquered females. War for all its vilifications continues in its instinct the preservation of the human species by eliminating the weak, the sick, the degenerate, the unfit. Is war evil? Necessary is the evil.

Doubt Time and Violence in Philosophical and Cultural Thought

NANKING!)湫身㫋 WONG NIM-YAN The Rape of Nanking remains one of the
most notorious war crimes in history, taking place over several weeks during the
Second Sino-Japanese War from late 1937 to early 1938 when the Japanese
army ...

Author: Artur K. Wardega

Publisher: Cambridge Scholars Publishing

ISBN: 1443843059

Category: History

Page: 210

View: 550

As the title of the present publication suggests, the ten essays of this book try to approach an inconvenient trauma of global human reality and the uniformity of media and cyberspace in which human lives suffer harm, loss of inner identity and of broader meaning. Indeed, our postmodern and post-identity times are characterized by a flux of rapid social changes, uncertainty, vague and shaking moral values, by violence and frightening information with its contradictory truths and genuine ambiguity; finally by the violence of unpredictable climate change resulting in various and frequent calamities and devastation of life. Doubt and time are the central concern of modern philosophy and remind us that violence is inherent in the human condition and that reflection on it, regardless of different cultural sensibilities, is ipso facto part of the mainstream of our individual and global concerns. These, and many other fascinating topics from Western and Chinese history, were explored and brought to light by a learned forum of distinguished scholars and experts whose contributions are contained in this publication.

Ordinary Violence Everyday Assaults against Women Worldwide 2nd Edition

THE RAPE OF NANKING When Iris Chang published The Rape of Nanking in
1994, it was met with immediate acclaim and immediate condemnation. She had
known little about this atrocity committed by the Japanese Imperial Army until she

Author: Mary White Stewart

Publisher: ABC-CLIO

ISBN: 1440829381

Category: Social Science

Page: 488

View: 629

Addresses the many forms of global violence against women and shows how the psychology of individuals, institutions, and societies perpetuate the oppression of women. • Contains the most recent research on trafficking, mail order brides, and comfort women • Explains the roles of power, inequality, and gender hierarchy in violence against women • Examines the belief system behind institutionalized violence, including such acts as honor crimes and dowry deaths • Links current forms of violence with relics of the past—foot binding, comfort women, and charity girls

The Theme of Rape in Elizabethan and Jacobean Literary Texts

The term rape was developed out of the Latin word 'rapere', which means 'to take
by force'. ... usage is paralleled by the use of 'rape' for a real historic event: 'rape'
as a name is also used for a very violent situation like in the 'Rape of Nanking'.

Author: Stephanie Schnabel

Publisher: GRIN Verlag

ISBN: 3638694801


Page: 84

View: 348

Examination Thesis from the year 2006 in the subject English Language and Literature Studies - Literature, grade: 1,3, University of Dusseldorf "Heinrich Heine" (Anglistik IV), 53 entries in the bibliography, language: English, comment: This study focus on the poems written by W. Shakespeare and T. Middleton and the play by T. Heywood, which all deal with the rape of Lucrece. The analysis considers their literary predecessors from Antiquity and the Middle Ages as well as the contemporary circumstances of the three texts and the outcomes for the writers before the text are analysed in depth., abstract: Diese Arbeit beschaftigt sich mit dem Grundungsmythos der romischen Republik, d.h. mit der Vergewaltigung der Lucretia durch Tarquin, als literarischem Motiv. Obwohl auch Texte aus der Antike und dem Mittelalter betrachtet werden, in denen dieser Mythos verarbeitet wurde, liegt der Schwerpunkt auf drei Texten (zwei Gedichten und einem Theaterstuck) der englischen Renaissance: William Shakespeares "Rape of Lucrece," Thomas Middletons "The Ghost of Lucrece" und Thomas Heywoods "Rape of Lucrece." Sie werden erst einzeln vorgestellt und dann kontrastiv mit einander verglichen. This study deals with the founding myth of the Roman republic, that is the rape of Lucrece by Tarquin, as a literary motive. Although also texts from Antiquity as well as the Middle Ages are considered, the main focus is centred on three texts (two poems and one play) of the English Renaissance period: these are William Shakespeare's "Rape of Lucrece," Thomas Middleton's "The Ghost of Lucrece" and Thomas Heywood's "Rape of Lucrece." They are first analysed in depth one after the other before a contrastive comparison takes place.

War and Rape

In the late 1930s, the spree of violent rapes against the Chinese population of
Nanking by the Imperial Japanese Army was later coined 'the Rape of Nanking'
due to the horrific numbers of women raped during the six-week invasion.
Women ...

Author: Nicola Henry

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 0415564727

Category: Law

Page: 169

View: 699

Wartime rape has been virulent in wars of sovereignty, territory, conquest, religion, ideology and liberation, yet attention to this crime has been sporadic throughout history. Rape remains âe~unspeakableâe(tm), particularly within law. Moreover, rape has not featured prominently in post-conflict collective memory. And even when rape is âe~rememberedâe(tm), it is often the subject of political controversy and heated debate. In this book, Henry asks some critical questions about the relationship between mass rape, politics and law. In what ways does law contribute to the collective memory of wartime rape? How do âe~counter-memoriesâe(tm) of victims compete with the denialism of wartime rape? The text specifically analyses the historical silencing of rape throughout international legal history and the potential of law to restore these silenced histories, it also examines the violence of law and the obstacles to individual and collective redemption. Tracing the prosecution of rape crimes within contemporary courts, Henry seeks to argue that politics underscores the way rape is dealt with by the international community in the aftermath of armed conflict. Providing a comprehensive overview of the politics of wartime rape and the politics of prosecuting such crimes within international humanitarian law, this text will be of great interest to scholars of gender and security, war crimes and law and society.

China s Bloody Century

World opinion was especially horrified over what became known as “The Rape of
Nanking.” Nanking was the nationalist capital and the home of many foreign
missionaries, diplomats, and newsmen. As a result, when the Japanese army ...

Author: R. J. Rummel

Publisher: Transaction Publishers

ISBN: 1412814006

Category: Political Science

Page: 348

View: 142

Except for Soviet citizens, no people in this century have endured so much mass killing as have the Chinese. They have been murdered by rebels conniving with their own rulers, and then, after the defeat in war of the imperial dynasty, by soldiers of other lands. They have been killed by warlords who ruled one part of China or another. They have been executed by Nationalists or Communists because they had the wrong beliefs or attitudes or were simply in the wrong place at the wrong time. In China's Bloody Century, R.J. Rummel's careful estimate of the total number of killings exceeds 5 million. How do we explain such killings, crossing ideological bounds and political conditions? According to Rummel, the one constant factor in all the Chinese mass murder, as it was in the Soviet Union and Nazi Germany, is arbitrary power. It was the factor that united warlords, Nationalists, Communists, and foreign armies. The author argues that whenever such undisciplined power is centralized and unchecked, the possibility exists that it will be used at the whim of dictators to kill for their own ends, whether the aim is ethnic-racial purity, national unity, development, or utopia. The book presents successive periods in modern Chinese history, with each chapter divided into three parts. Rummel first relates the history of the period within which the nature and the amount of killings are presented. He then provides a detailed statistical table giving the basic estimates with their sources and qualifications. The final part offers an appendix that explains and elaborates the statistical computations and estimates. While estimates are available in the literature on the number of Chinese killed in Communist land reform, or in Tibet, or by the Nationalists in one military campaign or another, until this book no one has tried to systematically accumulate, organize, add up, and analyze these diverse killings for all of China's governments in this century. For the first time in one place, hundreds of published estimates of Chinese genocide and mass murder are listed with sources, analyzed, and their historical context presented. This book will be of central interest to Sinologists, Sovietologists, and those interested in comparative politics and society.