TRP Channels in Health and Disease

This Special Book features a collection of 8 reviews and 7 original articles published in “Cells” summarizing the current state-of-the-art on TRP channel research, with a main focus on TRP channel activation, their physiological and ...

Author: Alexander Dietrich

Publisher: MDPI

ISBN: 3039210823

Category: Medical

Page: 266

View: 653

Almost 25 years ago, the first mammalian transient receptor potential (TRP) channel was cloned and published. TRP channels now represent an extended family of 28 members fulfilling multiple roles in the living organism. Identified functions include control of body temperature, transmitter release, mineral homeostasis, chemical sensing, and survival mechanisms in a challenging environment. The TRP channel superfamily covers six families: TRPC with C for “canonical”, TRPA with A for “ankyrin”, TRPM with M for “melastatin”, TRPML with ML for “mucolipidin”, TRPP with P for “polycystin”, and TRPV with V for “vanilloid”. Over the last few years, new findings on TRP channels have confirmed their exceptional function as cellular sensors and effectors. This Special Book features a collection of 8 reviews and 7 original articles published in “Cells” summarizing the current state-of-the-art on TRP channel research, with a main focus on TRP channel activation, their physiological and pathophysiological function, and their roles as pharmacological targets for future therapeutic options.

TRP Channels in Health and Disease

Together, these channels cover a wide temperature range with extremes that fall between 10 C and 53 C. This new and unique book reviews research on TRP channels and their relation to health and disease.

Author: Arpad Szallasi

Publisher: Nova Biomedical

ISBN: 9781616683375

Category: Science

Page: 563

View: 204

Changes in temperature, either hot or cold, is sensed through direct activation of members of the temperature-sensitive transient release potential (TRP) ion channel superfamily, the so-called "thermoTRPs". Of the 28 TRP channels discovered today, seven sense hot or warm temperatures whereas two are activated by cold. Together, these channels cover a wide temperature range with extremes that fall between 10 C and 53 C. This new and unique book reviews research on TRP channels and their relation to health and disease.

Neurobiology of TRP Channels

in. Health. and. Disease. Vladimir Chubanov, Sebastian Kubanek, Susanne
Fiedler, Lorenz Mittermeier, Thomas Gudermann, and Alexander Dietrich
CONTENTS 187 188 189 191 191 10.1 Kidney Function and Expression of TRP
Channels .

Author: Tamara Luti Rosenbaum Emir

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1498755267

Category: Science

Page: 327

View: 181

During the last two decades, there has been an explosion of research pertaining to the molecular mechanisms that allow for organisms to detect different stimuli that is an essential feature for their survival. Among these mechanisms, living beings need to be able to respond to different temperatures as well as chemical and physical stimuli. Thermally activated ion channels were proposed to be present in sensory neurons in the 1980s, but it was not until 1997 that a heat- and capsaicin- activated ion channel, TRPV1, was cloned and its function described in detail. This groundbreaking discovery led to the identification and characterization of several more proteins of the family of Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) ion channels. Intensive research has provided us with the atomic structures of some of these proteins, as well as understanding of their physiological roles, both in normal and pathological conditions. With chapters contributed by renowned experts in the field, Neurobiology of TRP Channels contains a state- of- the- art overview of our knowledge of TRP channels, ranging from structure to their functions in organismal physiology. Features: • Contains chapters on the roles of several TRP ion channels with a diversity of physiological functions, providing a complete picture of the widespread importance of these proteins. • Presents an overview of the structure of TRP channels, including the roles of these proteins in different physiological processes. • Discusses the roles of TRP channels in pathophysiological processes, further highlighting their importance. • Features several full color illustrations to allow the reader better comprehension of TRP channels. A volume in the Frontiers in Neuroscience series

Transcriptional Gene Regulation in Health and Disease

INTRODUCTION Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels belong to a
heteroge- neous superfamily of cation channels that are separated into six
subfamilies: TRPC (canonical), TRPV (vanilloid), TRPM (melastatin), TRPML (
mucolipins), ...

Author:

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 0128123400

Category: Science

Page: 254

View: 199

Transcriptional Gene Regulation in Health and Disease, Volume 335, the latest release in the International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology reviews and details current advances in cell and molecular biology. The IRCMB series has a worldwide readership, maintaining a high standard by publishing invited articles on important and timely topics that are authored by prominent cell and molecular biologists. The articles published in IRCMB have a high impact and an average cited half-life of nine years. This great resource ranks high amongst scientific journals dealing with cell biology. Publishes only invited review articles on selected topics Authored by established and active cell and molecular biologists drawn from international sources Offers a wide range of perspectives on specific subjects

Pancreatic Beta Cell in Health and Disease

These channels pass cations, mainly Na+ and Ca2+, down their respective
electrochemical gradients in response to multiple stimuli, thus affecting cellular
depolarization. The first TRP channel identified in the beta cell was TRPC1 [72] ...

Author: Susumu Seino

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9784431754527

Category: Science

Page: 476

View: 420

The beta cells of the pancreatic islets of Langerhans are the only cells in the body that produce and secrete insulin. This metabolic hormone plays a central role in the maintenance of glucose homeostasis. This book provides a comprehensive review of the beta cell in health and disease. The book’s primary aim is to encourage investigators to become actively involved in diabetes research and the search for new approaches to prevent and treat diabetes.

Glia in Health and Disease

Besides the TRP channels discussed above, other mechanical ion channels
have been implicated in osmosensation, such as TMEM63 proteins found in
Arabidopsis (Zhao et al., 2016), acid-sensing ion channel 3 in the intervertebral
disc ...

Author: Margaret S. Ho

Publisher: Frontiers Media SA

ISBN: 2889458504

Category:

Page:

View: 299


Encyclopedia of Behavioral Neuroscience

Transient receptor potential channels – TRP channels were named after the near
-blind Drosophila mutant that displays ... is used as a neuropharmacological tool
to identify sensory neurons and their contribution to health and disease. Table 1 ...

Author:

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0080914551

Category: Psychology

Page: 1816

View: 846

Behavioral Neuroscientists study the behavior of animals and humans and the neurobiological and physiological processes that control it. Behavior is the ultimate function of the nervous system, and the study of it is very multidisciplinary. Disorders of behavior in humans touch millions of people’s lives significantly, and it is of paramount importance to understand pathological conditions such as addictions, anxiety, depression, schizophrenia, autism among others, in order to be able to develop new treatment possibilities. Encyclopedia of Behavioral Neuroscience is the first and only multi-volume reference to comprehensively cover the foundation knowledge in the field. This three volume work is edited by world renowned behavioral neuroscientists George F. Koob, The Scripps Research Institute, Michel Le Moal, Université Bordeaux, and Richard F. Thompson, University of Southern California and written by a premier selection of the leading scientists in their respective fields. Each section is edited by a specialist in the relevant area. The important research in all areas of Behavioral Neuroscience is covered in a total of 210 chapters on topics ranging from neuroethology and learning and memory, to behavioral disorders and psychiatric diseases. The only comprehensive Encyclopedia of Behavioral Neuroscience on the market Addresses all recent advances in the field Written and edited by an international group of leading researchers, truly representative of the behavioral neuroscience community Includes many entries on the advances in our knowledge of the neurobiological basis of complex behavioral, psychiatric, and neurological disorders Richly illustrated in full color Extensively cross referenced to serve as the go-to reference for students and researchers alike The online version features full searching, navigation, and linking functionality An essential resource for libraries serving neuroscientists, psychologists, neuropharmacologists, and psychiatrists

Cough An Interdisciplinary Problem An Issue of Otolaryngologic Clinics E Book

Szallasi A. Vanilloid (capsaicin) receptors in health and disease. Am J Clin
Pathol ... Pungent products from garlic activate the sensory ion channel TRPA1.
PNAS 2005 ... Nilius B, Voets T, Peters I. TRP channels in disease. Sci STKE.
2005 ...

Author: Kenneth W. Altman

Publisher: Elsevier Health Sciences

ISBN: 1455700517

Category: Medical

Page: 237

View: 639

Both acute and chronic cough are responsible for a significant number of ambulatory medical visits annually. The recent comprehensive understanding that “cough is a reflection of underlying disease pays tribute to the multifactorial causes, as well recognition of the respiratory and upper digestive tract as a “physiologic unit. This publication highlights the advances made in managing cough and brings these to otolaryngology practitioners in a concise forum, as well as presenting issues of special interest to laryngologists such as paradoxical vocal fold motion, disordered breathing, irritable larynx, evolution of the vagus as a protective circuit, the importance of cough in deglutition, and surgical interventions. Some of the topics include: The cough reflex, sensory receptors, and neurogenic mediators; Mucus and mucins; Cough and Swallowing dysfunction; Cough due to asthma, cough-variant asthma, and nonasthmatic eosinophilic bronchitis; Occupational, environmental, and irritant induced cough; Pharmacologic management; Unexplained cough; Cough in the pediatric population; and Rhinogenic laryngitis, cough and the unified airway; among others.

Epithelial Transport of Ions in Health and Disease

The Epithelial Calcium Channel Family Joost G. J. HOENDEROP !, Bernd Nilius
?, and René J. M. BINDELS With 1 Figure ... These two novel members of the
superfamily of TRP channels were cloned from vitamin D - responsive epithelia ...

Author: Irene Schulz

Publisher:

ISBN: 9783804721692

Category: Biological transport

Page: 182

View: 986


Transient Receptor Potential Channels

Health. and. Disease: Cold. Sensing. and. Beyond. Yi Liu and Ning Qin Abstract
This review focuses on TRPM8, one of the ~30 members of the diverse family of
transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channels. Initially identified from the ...

Author: Md. Shahidul Islam

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789400702653

Category: Medical

Page: 1095

View: 643

Transient Receptor Potential Channels offers a unique blend of thoughtfully selected topics ranging from the structural biology of this fascinating group of ion channels to their emerging roles in human diseases. This single book covers TRP channels of yeasts, flies, fishes frogs and humans. And from the biophysics of primary thermo-sensory events in cells to the thermosensation at whole organism level, from physiology of pain to the development of pain-killers, from psychiatric illnesses to cancers, from skin cells to sperms, from taste buds to testes, from established facts to heated debates, this book contains something for every TRP enthusiasts, beginner and expert alike. It includes crucial background information, critical analysis of cutting edge research, and ideas and thoughts for numerous testable hypotheses. It also shows directions for future research in this highly dynamic field. It is a book readers will be just as eager to give to others as keep for themselves.

Mammalian TRP Channels as Molecular Targets

Symposium on Mammalian Trp Channels As Molecular Targets Derek J.
Chadwick, Jamie A. Goode ... Due to the relevance of PKD2 for human health
and disease , we have recently begun to characterize the function of Drosophila
PKD2 .

Author: Symposium on Mammalian Trp Channels As Molecular Targets

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN:

Category: Nature

Page: 275

View: 790

Brings together contributions from key investigators in the area of TRP channels. It covers the structure, function and regulation of mammalian TRP channels and of mechanisms of signal transduction.

Membrane Receptors Channels and Transporters in Pulmonary Circulation

The book rigorously addresses: i) recent advances in our knowledge of receptors, channels and transporters and their role in regulation of pulmonary vascular function; ii) how modulation of expression and function of receptors, channels and ...

Author: Jason X. -J. Yuan

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1607615037

Category: Medical

Page: 501

View: 451

Membrane Receptors, Channels and Transporters in Pulmonary Circulation is a proceeding of the 2008 Grover Conference (Lost Valley Ranch and Conference Center, Sedalia, Colorado; September 3-7, 2008), which provided a forum for experts in the fields of those receptors, channels and transporters that have been identified as playing key roles in the physiology and pathophysiology of the pulmonary circulation. The book rigorously addresses: i) recent advances in our knowledge of receptors, channels and transporters and their role in regulation of pulmonary vascular function; ii) how modulation of expression and function of receptors, channels and transporters and their interrelationships contribute to the pathogenesis of pulmonary vascular disease; and iii) the therapeutic opportunities that may be revealed by enhancing our understanding of this area. The overall goal was to explore the mechanisms by which specific receptors, channels and transporters contribute to pulmonary vascular function in both health and disease, and how this knowledge may lead to novel interventions in lung dysplasia, pulmonary edema, lung injury, and pulmonary and systemic hypertension to reduce and prevent death from lung disease. Membrane Receptors, Channels and Transporters in Pulmonary Circulation is divided into six parts. Part 1 (Ion Channels in the Pulmonary Vasculature: Basics and New Findings) is designated for basic knowledge and recent findings in the research field of ion channels in pulmonary circulation. There are five chapters in Part I discussing the function, expression, distribution and regulation of various ion channels present in pulmonary vascular smooth muscle cells and how these channels are integrated to regulate intracellular Ca2+ and cell functions. Part II (TRP Channels in the Pulmonary Vasculature: Basics and New Findings) is composed of five chapters that are exclusively designed to discuss the role of a recently identified family of cation channels, transient receptor potential (TRP) channels, in the regulation of pulmonary vascular tone and arterial structure. Part III (Pathogenic Role of Ion Channels in Pulmonary Vascular Disease) includes four chapters that discuss how abnormal function and expression of various ion channels contribute to changes in cell functions and the development of pulmonary hypertension. Part IV (Receptors and Signaling Cascades in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension) consists of five chapters devoted to the role of bone morphogenetic protein receptors, Notch receptors, serotonin receptors, Rho kinase and vascular endothelial growth factor receptors in the development of pulmonary arterial hypertension. Part V (Receptors and Transporters: Role in Cell Function and Hypoxic Pulmonary Vasoconstriction) includes four chapters designed to illustrate the potential mechanisms involved in oxygen sensing and hypoxia-induced pulmonary vasoconstriction and hypertension. Part VI (Targeting Ion Channels and Membrane Receptors in Developing Novel Therapeutic Approaches for Pulmonary Vascular Disease) consists five chapters which discuss the translational research involving on membrane receptors, channels and transporters, including their potential as novel drug targets. We hope that Membrane Receptors, Channels and Transporters in Pulmonary Circulation will allow readers to foster new concepts and new collaborations and cooperations among investigators so as to further understand the role of receptors, channels and transporters in lung pathophysiology. The ultimate goal is to identify new mechanisms of disease, as well as new therapeutic targets for pulmonary vascular diseases. An additional outcome should be enhanced understanding of the role of these entities in systemic vascular pathophysiology, since the conference will include researchers and clinicians with interests in both pulmonary and systemic circulations.

Science

Magistretti / Susan Vannucci / Ernest Wright ) • Transient Receptor Potential (
TRP ) Channels in Health and Disease ( Al ... ( Gary Rudnick / Jonathan A.
Javitch / Kasper Locher / Poul Nissen ) • CNS Diseases of Transporters ( Susan
Vannucci ...

Author: John Michels

Publisher:

ISBN:

Category: Science

Page:

View: 452


Medical Physiology 2e Updated Edition E Book

Annu Rev Physiol 2005; 67: 809-839. Clapham DE, Runnels LW, Strübing C: The
TRP ion channel family. ... Khakh BS, North RA: P2X receptors as cell-surface
ATP sensors in health and disease. Nature 2006; 442:527-532. Kellenberger S ...

Author: Walter F. Boron

Publisher: Elsevier Health Sciences

ISBN: 1455711810

Category: Medical

Page: 1350

View: 403

Medical Physiology, in its updated 2nd edition, firmly relates molecular and cellular biology to the study of human physiology and disease. Drs. Walter Boron and Emile Boulpaep and a team of leading physiologists present you with practical, accurate coverage, continually emphasizing the clinical implications of the material. Each chapter explains the principles and organization of each body system, while more than 1400 high-quality, full-color line drawings and prominently featured clinical examples clarify every concept. This exceptionally detailed and comprehensive guide to physiology is ideal for a rich, straightforward, state-of-the-art understanding of this essential subject. Quickly review important content using prominent boxes included throughout the text to provide clinical examples of disordered physiology. Master difficult concepts with the use of 800 color drawings that feature balloon captions explaining key processes. Find information easily with the intuitive organization by body system and consistent style. Get up-to-date coverage of physiology with updated text and figures. Access the fully searchable text online at www.StudentConsult.com, along with Webnotes, Image Bank, 150 Self-assessment questions, and 10 physiology animations. Stay current thanks to updated material, including a new chapter on Physiology of Aging and a new section on hemostasis. Gain a clear visual understanding with a revised and updated art program of high-quality, full color line drawings and prominently featured clinical examples.

Olives and Olive Oil in Health and Disease Prevention

... voltage-operated Ca2 channels virgin olive oil vinyl phenol Watt water-in-oil
week after flowering wall coated open tubular Western diet World Health
Organization week X chromosome-linked inhibitor of apoptosis Antonio de
Castro Chapter ...

Author: Victor R. Preedy

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 9780080922201

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 1520

View: 820

Long used in sacred ceremonies and associated with good health, the nutritional and health promoting benefits of olives and olive oils have been proven by an ever-increasing body of science. From cardiovascular benefits to anti-microbial, anti-cancer, antioxidant activity and effects on macrophages and aptoptosis to cellular and pathophysiollogical process, olives and olive oils are proving important in many healthful ways. For example, reactive components in olive oils or olive oil by-products have now been isolated and identified. These include tyrosol, hydroxytyrosol, 3,4-dihydroxyphenyl acetic acid elenolic acid and oleuropein. Oleic acid is the main monosaturated fatty acid of olive oil. These have putative protective effects and modulate the biochemistry of a variety of cell types including those of the vascular system. Some but not all components have been characterised by their putative pharmacological properties. It is possible that usage of these aforementioned products may have beneficial application in other disease. However, in order for this cross-fertilization to take place, a comprehensive understanding of olives and olive oils is required. Finding this knowledge in a single volume provides a key resource for scientists in a variety of food an nutritional roles. Key Features: * Explores olives and olive oil from their general aspects to the detailed level of important micro-and micronutrients * Includes coverage of various methodologies for analysis to help scientists and chemists determine the most appropriate option for their own studies, including those of olive-related compounds in other foods * Relates, in a single volume resource, information for food and nutritional chemists, pharmaceutical scientists, nutritionists and dieticians * Presents information in three key categories: General aspects of olives an olive oils; Nutritional, pharmacological and metabolic properties of olives and olive oil; Specific components of olive oil and their effects on tissue and body systems

Ion Channels in Health and Sickness

This book will take us on an expedition describing the role of ion channels in congenital and acquired diseases and the challenges and limitations scientist are facing in the development of drugs targeting these membrane proteins.

Author: Fatima Shad Kaneez

Publisher: BoD – Books on Demand

ISBN: 1789842271

Category: Science

Page: 202

View: 829

Ion channels are proteins that make pores in the membranes of excitable cells present both in the brain and the body. These cells are not only responsible for converting chemical and mechanical stimuli into the electrical signals but are also liable for monitoring vital functions. All our activities, from the blinking of our eyes to the beating of our heart and all our senses from smell to sight, touch, taste and hearing are regulated by the ion channels. This book will take us on an expedition describing the role of ion channels in congenital and acquired diseases and the challenges and limitations scientist are facing in the development of drugs targeting these membrane proteins.

Regenerative Endodontics An Issue of Dental Clinics E Book

... Yang YM, Hong JH, et al. Odontoblast TRP channels and thermo/ mechanical
transmission. J Dent Res 2009;88:1014–9. 6. ... Kim S. Microcirculation of the
dental pulp in health and disease. J Endod 1985; 11:465–71. Magloire H, Joffre
A, ...

Author: Sami M.A. Chogle

Publisher: Elsevier Health Sciences

ISBN: 145574753X

Category: Medical

Page: 960

View: 745

Regenerative endodontics is the generation and replacement of diseased, damaged or absent pulp. This issue of Dental Clinics of North America provides a clinical view of regenerative endodontics and its aims, methods and techniques.

Handbook of Cannabis

Effects of cannabinoids and cannabinoidenriched Cannabis extracts on TRP
channels and endocannabinoid metabolic enzymes. British Journal of ...
Endocannabinoids and the regulation of their levels in health and disease.
Current Opinion ...

Author: Roger Pertwee

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191639702

Category: Medical

Page: 632

View: 959

Truly global in scope and with contributions from leading researchers around the world, The Handbook of Cannabis is the definitive resource on this fascinating drug. Combining scientific perspectives and clinical applications, it covers a vast array of topics, from why over the centuries cannabis has been used as a medicine, through the regulations facing those wishing to self-administer cannabis or provide cannabis-based medicines, to the chemical structure of its many constituents and the rapidly growing group of synthetic cannabinoids that are currently being used for 'legal highs'. With each chapter written by a group of one or more internationally recognised subject experts, it provides academics and researchers with authoritative scientific material on the main pharmacological actions and their effects, as well as their pharmacokinetics, metabolism, and forensic detection. In addition it also examines the complex morphology, cultivation, harvesting, and processing of cannabis and the ways in which the plant's chemical composition can be controlled. As well as offering a raft of scientific information there is extensive coverage of cannabinoid-based medicines. Helping readers to identify and evaluate their benefits, chapters explore pharmacological actions and the effects that seem to underlie approved therapeutic uses, how they are currently used to treat certain disorders, and the ever-growing number of wide-ranging potential clinical applications. There is also coverage of both the legal and illegal sources of cannabis, including 'coffee shops' and 'cannabis dispensaries'. The complex issue of 'recreational cannabis' is also tackled. The sought-after and adverse psychological and non-psychological effects are described and discussions are included on how some adverse effects can be lessened by at least one constituent of cannabis, and that it might be possible to reduce the harm that cannabis does to some by changing current regulatory policies. The Handbook of Cannabis is a one-stop reference; essential reading for all clinicians, pharmacologists, psychologists, and psychiatrists interested in this drug, as well as those working in the field of public health.

Occupational Asthma An Issue of Immunology and Allergy Clinics E Book

Environ Health Perspect 2001;4:585–9. Holgate ST. ... Nilius B, Voets T, Peters I.
TRP channels in disease. Sci STKE 2005;295:1–9. Rohacs T, Nilius B.
Regulation of transient receptor potential (TRP) channels by phosphoinositides.
Pflugers ...

Author: David I. Bernstein

Publisher: Elsevier Health Sciences

ISBN: 145571240X

Category: Medical

Page: 240

View: 330

This issue of Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America brings the clinician up to date on essential topics in occupational asthma. Articles cover definition; classification; epidemiology; old and new causes; pathogenesis and disease mechanisms; clinical assessment including differential diagnosis; and management of work-related asthma and related conditions. Other subject matter includes occupational rhinitis; irritant-induced asthma and reactive airways dysfunction; hypersensitivity pneumonitis and related conditions; and evaluation of impairment and disability.

Stroke E Book

Pacher P, Beckman JS, Liaudet L: Nitric oxide and peroxynitrite in health and
disease, Physiol Rev 87:315–424, 2007. ... Lipski J, Park TI, Li D, et al:
Involvement of TRP-like channels in the acute ischemic response of hippocampal
CA1 ...

Author: J. P. Mohr

Publisher: Elsevier Health Sciences

ISBN: 1437737803

Category: Medical

Page: 1520

View: 722

First published in 1986 under the editorial direction of Dr. Henry J.M. Barnett, Stroke: Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, and Management continues to provide the dependable, current answers you need to effectively combat the increasing incidence of this disease. Dr. J.P. Mohr, together with new associate editors Philip A. Wolf, James C. Grotta, Michael A. Moskowitz, Marc Mayberg, and Rüdiger von Kummer as well as a multitude of expert contributors from around the world, offer you updated and expanded coverage of mechanisms of action of commonly used drugs, neuronal angiogenesis and stem cells, basic mechanisms of spasm and hemorrhage, prevention of stroke, genetics/predisposing risk factors, and much more, equipping you to understand the latest scientific discoveries and make effective use of the newest approaches to diagnosis and treatment. Gain fresh perspectives and up-to-date insights from the world’s leading authorities on the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management of stroke. Access the comprehensive, expert clinical guidance you need to recognize the clinical manifestations of stroke, use the latest laboratory and imaging studies to arrive at a diagnosis, and generate an effective medical and surgical treatment plan. Make efficient and accurate diagnoses with the aid of abundant full-color CT images and pathology slides. Stay up to date on hot topics such as mechanisms of action of commonly used drugs, neuronal angiogenesis and stem cells, basic mechanisms of spasm and hemorrhage, prevention of stroke, genetics/predisposing risk factors, and much more.