Transport properties of plant cuticles are important for different ?elds of modern plant sciences.
Author: Lukas Schreiber
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Transport properties of plant cuticles are important for different ?elds of modern plant sciences. Ecologists and physiologists are interested in water losses to the environment via the cuticle. Penetration of plant protecting agents and nutrients into leaves and fruits is relevant for research in agriculture and plant protection. Ecotoxicologists need to know the amounts of environmental xenobiotics which accumulate in leaves and other primary plant organs from the environment. For all of these studies suitable methods should be used, and a sound theoretical basis helps to formulate testable hypotheses and to interpret experimental data. Unnecessary experiments and experiments which yield ambiguous results can be avoided. In this monograph, we have analysed on a molecular basis the movement of molecules across plant cuticles. Based on current knowledge of chemistry and str- ture of cuticles, we have characterised the aqueous and lipophilic pathways, the nature and mechanisms of mass transport and the factors controlling the rate of movement. We have focused on structure–property relationships for penetrant tra- port, which can explain why water and solute permeabilities of cuticles differ widely among plant species. Based on this knowledge, mechanisms of adaptation to en- ronmental factors can be better understood, and rates of cuticular penetration can be optimised by plant physiologists and pesticide chemists.
In: Lange OL et al (eds) Encyclopedia of plant physiology. Springer, Berlin, pp
153–179 Schreiber L, Schönherr J (2009) Water and solute permeability of plant
cuticles. Measurement and data analysis. Springer, Heidelberg Segado P, ...
Author: Ajit Varma
Publisher: Springer Nature
This book provides a comprehensive overview of the current state of knowledge on plant-microbiome interactions and associations. It covers all major mechanistic approaches used to investigate microbes’ impacts on plant growth promotion, disease control and health. The industrial manufacture of nitrogen currently accounts for roughly 2% of the world’s total energy consumption. Microbial products are expected to reduce the need for costly fertilizers, as well as chemical pesticides and fungicides. While beneficial microorganisms are increasingly being used in agriculture, abiotic and biotic stresses such as heat, drought, cold, and salt can quickly kill or render them useless in the field. However, discovering new and better treatments is a lengthy process due to the considerable microbial diversity found in soils. Researchers have now proposed using biotechnological approaches to accelerate the process of microbial technology development. The fact that plant-associated microbes stimulate plant growth and development is well known, as the examples of rhizobia and mycorrhizal fungi show. The mechanisms by which these microorganisms maintain plant growth include the production of phytohormones, fixation of nitrogen, and the mobilization of phosphorus and minerals. The plant microbiome is also involved in pathogen suppression, and especially the root microbiome acts as a protective shield against soil-borne pathogens. A special feature of this book is its multidisciplinary approach, spanning from plant microbiology/biocontrol, fungal and bacterial endophytes, plant physiology, to biochemistry, proteomics and genomics. It is ideally suited for researchers and student of agri-biotechnology, soil biology and fungal biology.
Heating upper apricot cuticles with water at 100 ° C . also causes shrinkage to
approximately two thirds of their former ... a method for quantitatively expressing
the permeability of plant cuticle to various solutes , ( b ) to determine the effects of
Author: Wallace Herman Orgell
The cuticle, together with its associated waxes, acts as a diffusion barrier against the uncontrolled loss of water and solutes from leaves.
Author: G. Kerstiens
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
The cuticle, together with its associated waxes, acts as a diffusion barrier against the uncontrolled loss of water and solutes from leaves. It forms a mechanical barrier against penetration by fungi and pests and communicates with them via chemical signa
In experiments using wbole leaves or plants this effect is usually confounded with
* ber effects of surfactants and formulations on performance of ... A gravimetric
test has been developed in which water permeability of cuticles is measured prior
to and after application of aqueous surfactant solutions . ... The mode of action of
surfactants and their effects on solute permeability of cuticles will be discussed .
Author: American Chemical Society. Meeting
function and development : a treatise on anatomy and vegetative development,
with special reference to woody plants John Albert ... Here, we provide a general
description of cuticle, including cuticular pores, through which water and solutes
may be absorbed. ... with these pores (or permeable areas) in the cuticle, then
ectodesmata and cuticular pores together could function — via diffusion and
Author: John Albert Romberger
Category: Business & Economics
Process Assessment and Improvement provides a powerful and practical approach to improving organizations through process assessment, combined with people factors such as organizational culture and team-based improvement. Originally published in 2004, this new and expanded second edition presents an updated version of process assessments and includes new risk methods. The book covers three major business reasons for process assessment: setting Target Profiles, Process Capability Determination, and Process Improvement. The comprehensive improvement programs and agile improvement methodologies presented in the book are grounded in successful practices employed in world class organizations. Useful examples, templates and tools are included.
Category: Plant physiology
Cuticle permeability to gases , solutes , water and other chemicals is a subject of
interest in various fields of research : weed control , plant protection against smog
, plant pathology , plant nutrition ( foliar applied chemicals ) growth regulators ...
Author: Jean Fernand Laborde
It can be reasoned that when rust pustules open , this causes a rupturing of the
waterproof covering , the cuticle ; therefore ... Also , it is logical that wilted plants ,
with their stomata closed and with a water deficit , would transpire less than
normal . ... Plant cells adjacent to cells infected with either obligate or facultative
parasites , have increased permeability to water and solutes , ( Thatcher , 1942 ) .
Author: Clare B. Kenaga
Publisher: Waveland PressInc
Category: Plant diseases
Introduction of phytopathology; Brief historical background; Plant disease concept, definitions, symptoms and classification; Bacteria as causal agents of plant disease; Mollicutes and related organisms as probable causal agents of plant disease; Fungi as causal agents of plant disease; Viruses as causal agents of plant disease; Nematodes as causal agents of plant disease; Parasitic seed plants as causal agents of plant disease; Noninfectious plant disease; Air pollution toxicity; Market pathology; Environment - its influence on the development of infectious diseases; The pathogen - production and spread of inoculum; The pahtogen - inoculum and entry into plants; The pahtogen - variation; The resistant host; The pathogen present in the host; Host responses to inbfection; Plant diseases epidemics; Disease control - breeding for resistance; Disease control - inoculum reduction; Disease control - quarantines; List of plant species sensitive and tolerant to specific air pollutants.
The partition coefficients ( k ) of Rb + in Brussels sprouts cuticles averaged 2.16 (
Table 3 ) , and tended to decrease as temperature and / or ... from astomatous
leaf surfaces ( Hull , 1970 ) , thus the characterization of cuticular permeability is
of extreme importance . ... Fick's law adequately describes the diffusion of an
uncharged solute through a homogeneous layer , for example a layer of water ,
but must ...
Author: E. F. Cutler
Publisher: Academic Press
Examples include applications in analyses of water permeability in plants , air
pollutant dispersion modeling , ... Lognormal distribution of water permeability
and organic solute mobility in plant cuticles, Plant Cell and Environment 20, ...
Author: Abdel H. El-Shaarawi
A comprehensive overview of environmetric research and its applications... Environmetrics covers the development and application of quantitative methods in the environmental sciences. It provides essential tools for understanding, predicting, and controlling the impacts of agents, both man-made and natural, which affect the environment. Basic and applied research in this area covers a broad range of topics. Primary among these are the quantitative sciences, such as statistics, probability and applied mathematics, chemometrics, and econometrics. Applications are also important, for example in, ecology and environmental biology, public health, atmospheric science, geology, engineering, risk management, and regulatory/governmental policy amongst others. * Divided into 12 sections, the Encyclopedia brings together over 600 detailed articles which have been carefully selected and reviewed through the collaborative efforts of the Editors-in-Chief and the appropriate Section Editor * Presented in alphabetical order all the articles will include an explanatory introduction, extensive cross-referencing and an up-to-date bibliography providing literature references for further reading. Presenting state of the art information in a readable, highly accessible style, the scope and coverage provided by the Encyclopedia of Environmetrics will ensure its place as the landmark reference for the many scientists, educators, and decision-makers working across this multidisciplinary field. An essential reference tool for university libraries, research laboratories, government institutions and consultancies concerned with the environmental sciences, the Encyclopedia of Environmetrics brings together for the first time, comprehensive coverage of the full range of topics, techniques and applications covered by this multidisciplinary field. There is currently no central reference source which addresses the needs of this multidisciplinary community. This new Encyclopedia will fill this gap by providing a comprehensive source of relevant fundamental concepts in environmetric research, development and applications for statisticians, mathematicians, economists, environmentalists, ecologist, government officials and policy makers.
Factors influencing the permeability of cuticles to air pollutants It is known from
studies in pesticide penetration of leaves ( Hull , 1970 ... temperature , humidity or
light intensity , can influence the rate of solute uptake by leaves ( Prince , 1982
and Reed and Tukey , 1982 ) . ... water permeability of the cuticle is determined
by the ( extractable lipids ) ; upon extraction values increase by 2 or 3 orders of ...
Author: Sigurd Schulte-Hostede
Publisher: Elsevier Science & Technology
BAUR , P . : Lognormal distribution of water permeability and organic solute
mobility in plant cuticles . – Plant Cell Env . 20 , 167 - 177 , 1997 . Baur , P . , J .
SCHÖNHERR : Temperature dependence of diffusion of organic compounds
Category: Plant diseases
Mechanism of Movement of Solutions in Plants . By R . D . Preston . ... 134 On the
Mechanism of Active Movement of Water and Solutes through Plant Roots . ...
187 Asymmetrical Behaviour of Insect Cuticle in Relation to Water Permeability .
Author: Faraday Society
A negative hydrostatic pressure in the procuticle results in a compressive force
acting on the epicuticle and it is suggested that this could result in an increase of
order at the molecular level ... It is suggested that this is the cause of the lower -
than - expected water permeability of cockroach epicuticle . ... Water relations of
plant cells . ... A mechanism for coupling of water and solute transport in epithelia
Soil Moisture and Aeration ( Continued from page 17 ) Since water exists in a
continuous phase throughout the plant , a “ pull ... and solutes . When water is
lost from the leaves by transpiration , the water suction in the leaves increases .
Water suction ... humidity ) , plant water suction , and WHY DOES WATER MOVE
THROUGH PLANTS ? plant stomates and cuticle . ... of water to move from the
soil to the plant ; this is influenced by soil moisture availability , root permeability ,
and plant ...
Category: Golf course managers
Author: Charlotte Liebtag Grant
Evans and Ting ( 1973 ) studied ozone - induced water permeability changes
using leaf discs from pinto bean plants by : ( 1 ) change in net weight measured ...
In addition , the refractive index measurements showed a small leakage of solute
materials out of the leaf discs . ... systems , these eukaryotes eliminate variables
introduced by stomata , cuticle , cellular differentiation , and translocation .
Author: John Brian Mudd
Responses of Plants to Air Pollution ...
It is determined that the resistance that offers the cuticle to the changes in
permeability to the water vapor do not depend specifically on his thickness ...
Lognormal distribution of water permeability and organic solute mobility in plant
Author: Richard Elphick